major diseases of maize

Shortening of internodes and light streaking of leaves followed by a broad stripe of bleached tissue on each side of the midrib. Phytopathology 96:120-129. Penicillium oxalicum, Pythium arrhenomanes Cochliobolus intermedius [teleomorph] Common Smut. Fusarium culmorum 3 Nematodes, Parasitic. The fungus is an Ascomycete and can use conidia or ascospores to infect. Maize is the world’s most produced crop, providing food, feed, and biofuel. Corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) infestation on tassel, Heavy aphid infestation and growth of sooty mold on corn. Standard varieties should be planted when the soil has warmed to at least 12.7°C (55°F) and supersweet varieties when the soil reaches 18.3°C (65°F). Slugs prefer moist, shaded habitats and will shelter in weeds or organic trash; adults may deposit eggs in the soil throughout the season; damage to plants can be extensive. Maize varieties. Mucor sp. Stewart's wilt (Erwinia stewartii) on sweet corn, Leaf symptoms in maize caused by Erwinia stewartii showing long chlorotic streaks with irregular margins. Under ideal conditions, the stalk will produce a second, slightly smaller ear which reaches maturity slightly later than the first. Bipolaris sorokiniana [anamorph] = Helminthosporium sorokinianum = H. sativum Cunninghamella sp. Black cutworm larva (Agrotis ipsilon) lying next to the damage it caused to a young corn plant. P. crenatus List of maize diseases. Signs and symptoms of common smut (Ustilago maydis) on a corn plant. Botrytis cinerea Foliar symptoms vary with hybrid and different fungal isolate; lesions on leaves may be tan and elongated and run between leaf veins; lesions may have a buff or brown colored margin; another race of the fungus causes tan, spindle shaped or elliptical lesions with a water-soaked margin that turns into a yellow halo. The symptoms progress from lower leaves to upper leaves. Seedlings should be thinned to a final spacing 20–30 cm (8–12 in) when they are approximately 7.5–10.0 cm (3–4 in) in height. Maize is also a major source of starch, which can be processed into oils and high fructose corn syrup. Glomerella falcatum [anamorph], Curvularia eragrostidis = Curvularia maculans Trichodorus spp. Field maize plant, the bottom leaf of which is showing symptoms of nitrogen deficiency. Bipolaris zeicola = Helminthosporium carbonum Oval or elongated cinnamon brown pustules on upper and lower surfaces of leaves; pustules rupture and release powdery red spores; pustules turn dark brown-black as they mature and release dark brown powdery spores; if infection is severe, pustules may appear on tassels and ears and leaves may begin to yellow; in partially resistant corn hybrids, symptoms appear as chlorotic or necrotic flecks on the leaves which release little or no spore. 4. According to their opinion the major diseases were leaf spot, cob rot, leaf blight, sheath blight and bacterial leaf blightranked . Rhizopus arrhizus, Helminthosporium leaf disease, ear and stalk rot. Assessment on major diseases of maize, sorghum, coffee haricot bean, mung bean and cow pea was undertaken at South omo zone (South Ari, and Benatsemay woreda) and Segen peoples zone (Konsso woreda). A pair of large leaves extend off of each internode and the leaves total 8–21 per plant. nebraskensis Remove the ears from the stalk by pulling quickly downward while twisting and then refrigerate until consumption. White Delight. carotovora Rhizopus microsporus first to fifth expressed by the 31.75 %, 26.50 %, 25.25 %, 19.25 % and 19.25%, farmers, respectively (Table 3). Quinisulcius acutus I… Bipolaris victoriae = Helminthosporium victoriae Major disease infections in the maize field. The combined action of natural enemies (including predators of eggs, larvae and pupae, parasites of eggs and larvae, and caterpillar diseases) can have a significant impact. In addition, brief accounts are provided of two major maize virus disease epidemics (maize streak in SSA, maize rough dwarf in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions), a major rice disease epidemic (rice hoja blanca in the Americas), and damaging tomato tospovirus and begomovirus disease epidemics of tomato that impair food security in different world regions. Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) is the most devastating foliar disease of maize. Erwinia carotovora subsp. Fusarium acuminatum This can cause different types of diseases in vegetative and generative organs of the plant. Comparison of two corn tassel infected with common smut (center), Ustilago maydis, and head smut (right), Sphacelotheca reiliana. Ascochyta zeicola -The Sunday Times- Purple tinged leaves indicate that the plants are suffering from a lack of phosphorous, whereas light green leaves indicate a lack of nitrogen. Fungal diseases are a major threat to maize production and can result in severe crop losses. Adult insect is a pale green to tan, medium sized moth; can be a very damaging pests ofcorn; insect overwinters as pupae in the soil. Fungus overwinters in corn debris in soil; disease occurs worldwide but is emergence favors areas with a warm, damp climate. Busseola fusca. Tar spot of corn - Phyllachora maydis", Common Names of Diseases, The American Phytopathological Society, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_maize_diseases&oldid=992870208, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Goss's bacterial wilt and blight (leaf freckles and wilt), Corn stunt (achapparramiento, maize stunt, Mesa Central or Rio Grande maize stunt), Fusarium kernel, root and stalk rot, seed rot and seedling blight, American wheat striate (wheat striate mosaic), Maize mosaic (corn leaf stripe, enanismo rayado), Maize rayado fino (fine striping disease), Maize red stripe (now known as Wheat mosaic virus, Maize stripe (maize chlorotic stripe, maize hoja blanca), This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 15:21. Soil can be brought up to temperature faster by laying black plastic mulches approximately 1 week prior to planting. Plant diseases can be classified as infectious or noninfectious, depending on the causative agent. One of the most important requirements for growing corn is a high quality soil which is deep, fertile and well-draining with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. The disease mainly spread through rain splash and wind. This pattern starts from leaf end to leaf collar. Key to maize ratings (1) End use Rhizoctonia solani The disease appear as early from two weeks after sowing resulting in chlorosis and stunting. The maize association panel used in this study is a collection of inbred lines from public breeding programs worldwide and represents substantial diversity present in maize (11, 19).In our experiments, the panel exhibited extensive variation in quantitative resistance to each of the diseases. Fusarium pallidoroseum Corn plant infected with Maize dwarf mosaic, Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (Potyvirus MDMV). Mucor spp. The major genes Ht2 and Htn1 were also mapped to bins 8.05 and 8.06, suggesting the presence of a cluster of closely linked major and minor genes. Disease is spread by wind-borne spores; some of the most popularly grown sweet corn varieties have little or no resistance to the disease. P. hexincisus Other symptoms are premature plant death, shortened male inflorescences with few spikes, and/or shortened, malformed, partially filled ears. Diseases of Maize Major diseases 1. Black Bundle Disease and Late Wilt: Causal organism: Cephalosporium maydis, Caphalosporium acremonium. Maize varieties. Fusarium moniliforme Plant disease, an impairment of the normal state of a plant that interrrupts or modifies its vital functions. P. scribneri Gray Leaf Spot. In developing countries, maize is consumed directly and serves as staple diet for some 200 million people. Bluish black perithecia of Gibberella zeae superficial near nodes, Small black fungal fruiting bodies visible on corn stalk. Common Rust. description of common maize diseases, their causal agents, and their symptoms. Therefore, the major objective of this maize seed production technique manual is to improve the knowledge to farmers about technical and management activities, including increment in production of quality seed of maize. Apart from causing severe damage to the crop, it can also produce a potentially fatal mycotoxicosis in cattle and sheep. Maize also requires plenty of space as it grows and is pollinated by wind. To reduce our dependence on chemicals, experiment was conducted at five hot-spots in … The pathogen have several alternative hosts. Contents. Diplodia maydis P. christiei Infections of maize with phytopathogenic and toxinogenic Fusarium spp. 1). Major diseases: P. zeae. Leptothyrium zeae Irregularly shaped holes in leaves and stems; leaves may be shredded; slime trails present on rocks, walkways, soil and plant foliage; several slug species are common garden and field pests; slugs are dark gray to black in color and can range in size from 2.5 to 10 cm (1-4 in). The galls are formed by female nematode feeding resulting in formation of giant cells. Cochliobolus victoriae [teleomorph] Circular or elliptical spots 2-10 mm across near the tips of lower leaves which are dark green and water soaked initially but become cream to tan before turning dry and brown; lesions may have red-brown margins; large lesions may have a yellow halo. Curvularia intermedia They tend to hide down in the corn whorl. Disease cycle It is a seed-borne fungus. P. neglectus The pathogen may infect the stem and causes stunting, wilting and death of plant. This can cause different types of diseases in vegetative and generative organs of the plant. The virus mainly spread by vectors (maize thrips, aphids, rootworms and leaf beetles) and infected seeds. Along with these infections, mycotoxins are often produced and accumulated in affected tiss … Common rust (CR) caused by Puccinia sorghi Schwein is one of the major foliar diseases of maize (Zea mays L.) in Eastern and Southern Africa. Maize is a staple cereal affected by over 32 major diseases that can cause substantial yield losses (Mueller et al. Feeding damage to leaves, tassel and leaf whorls; preferred feeding site is the ear and insect produces extensive excrement at the tip of the ear; younger larvae feed on silks, severing them from the plant; young caterpillars are cream-white in color with a black head and black hairs; older larvae may be yellow-green to almost black in color with fine white lines along their body and black spots at the base of hairs; eggs are laid singly on both upper and lower leaf surfaces and are initially creamy white but develop a brown-red ring after 24 hours and darken prior to hatching. Since the 1990s, GLS has rapidly spread throughout maize-growing areas worldwide and currently poses a huge threat to maize production [ 2, 3 ]. Bipolaris maydis [anamorph] = Helminthosporium maydis. Maize (Zea mays) is the third most important cereal crop in the world after rice and wheat in production and it is stable food crop in Ethiopia.It is believed to have originated in Mexico and to have been introduced to Ethiopia in the 1600s to 1700s (McCann, 2005). Gray garden slug (Deroceras reticulatum) damage symptoms. Fungus survives the winter on crop debris. zeae, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Fusarium solani Maize production is constantly threatened by the presence of devastating pathogens worldwide. Seeds should be sown about 2.5 cm (1 in) deep and 10–15 cm (~3–4 in) apart allowing 76–91 cm (~30–36 in) between rows. nebraskensis). Many countries including the U.S. cultivate maize as a food source. In developed countries, maize is consumed mainly as second-cycle produce, in the form of meat, eggs and dairy products. Nematodes, Parasitic. Soaker hoses can be used to great effect in small to mid-size plantings. Foliar diseases can cause significant production constraints, particularly in conducive environments. Curvularia lunata A manual on the most important pests and diseases of the major food crops grown by smallholder farmers in Africa. B. fusca is often considered the most important pest of maize in sub-Saharan Africa. Leaves stippled with yellow; leaves may appear bronzed; webbing on underside of leaves; small kernel size; mites may be visible as tiny moving dots on the webs or underside of leaves, best viewed using a hand lens; usually not spotted until there are visible symptoms on the plant; leaves turn yellow and may drop from plant; Spider mites thrive in dusty conditions; water-stressed plants are more susceptible to attack. Diplodia ear rot is a notable maize disease in South Africa. May be found on corn at any time during the growing season. One of the challenges of growing these crops is the presence of maize pests. Major insect pests of maize in Africa: biology and control 1 Importance of insect pests of maize 2 Stem borers 3 Earborers 4 Soil insects 5 Leaf feeders 6 Storage pests 7 Bibliograpby 8 Suggestions for trainers Abstract. While the genetic basis of resistance to multiple fungal pathogens has been studied in maize, less is known about the relationship between fungal and bacterial resistance. Bacterial soft rot (Erwinia carotovora) on the leaf sheath of a corn stalk. In the past maize cultivars were developed for resilience and resistance where now the biggest focus is on … Some of the most common insects that cause damage to maize are corn earworm, stalk borer, rootworm, and armyworm. review was carried out to explore major maize diseases and their management in Nepal. Scolecosporiella sp. Fifty publications on the mapping of maize disease resistance loci were synthesized. Phytopathology 96:120-129. The virus is transmitted by aphids and tubers/setts. Each silk produced a single kernel of corn and partially filled ears are usually a result of poor pollination. Insect pests severely limit the production of maize, one of … Close-up view of the corn leaf aphid (Rhopalospiphum maidis). Stalks of field corn split in half to show vascular plugging caused by Goss's wilt (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Corn leaves showing symptoms of Goss's bacterial blight, Symptoms of Goss's bacterial blight on corn leaves, Stalk of field corn split to show vascular plugging. Phytophthora cactorum 1. Fungus overwinters on crop debris or in the soil and can survive for several years; fungus usually enters the plant through wounds; application of nitrogen fertilizer increases incidence of disease, while application of phosphorous fertilizer decreases infection. Maize, Zea mays, is an annual grass in the family Poaceae and is a staple food crop grown all over the world. [anamorph] 2. Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. Fusarium graminearum [anamorph] These papers reported the locations of 437 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for disease (dQTL), 17 resistance genes (R-genes), and 25 R-gene analogs. Leaves of maize showing characteristic "V" coloration indicating nitrogen deficiency. One of the most common insects that cause damage to maize is a corn earworm. The main symptoms includes appearance of chlorotic mottling on leaves which starts from base and extends upwards. Later stage the lesions looks dirty due to dark gray spores particularly under lower leaf surface. Estimat ed loss due to major diseases of maize in India : 13.2 % out of which f oliar Diseases (5 %), stalk rots, r oot rots, ear rots (5 %). Severe damage to corn plants due to an infestation of spider mites. Microdochium bolleyi Maize may also be referred to as corn or Indian corn and is believed to originate from Mexico and Central America. Field sanitation. Scopulariopsis brumptii, Cladosporium herbarum Insect can go through 3–5 generations a year. Fusarium equiseti Tar Spot: An Understudied Disease Threatening Corn Production in the Americas Gibberella zeae Zinc deficiency. If population is high leaves and may be distorted and curl upwards; edges of leaves may dry up and are speckled with black feces; insects are small (1.5 mm) and slender and best viewed using a hand lens; adult thrips are pale yellow to light brown and the nymphs are smaller and lighter in color. Major Diseases of Maize and their Distribution: About 72 pathogens have so far been reported causing substantial damage in maize, 16 have been identified as major ones and are given here. Maize has several major disease issues; thus, breeding multiple disease resistant (MDR) varieties is critical. The ear of the maize is a modified spike and there may be 1–3 per plant. Cutworms have a wide host range and attack vegetables including asparagus, bean, cabbage and other crucifers, carrot, celery, corn, lettuce, pea, pepper, potato and tomato. Banks grass mites (Oligonychus pratensis). This disease is frequently found in hot, humid maize-growing areas and was not considered an important pathogen until 1970 when C. heterostrophus race T became prevalent in the U.S. Corn Belt. Grassy weeds also serve as hosts for corn-leaf aphids; peach aphids have a wide host range. Bacterial leaf stripe (Acidovorax avenae subsp. Flecks and rings may be observed on newly formed leav… Kernels replaced by smut galls in corn ear. Bacterial diseases. Crops are hosts to numerous plant pathogenic microorganisms. Fusarium episphaeria 5 References. Most diseases covered are economically significant or have the potential to become so. Mariannaea elegans It is common to stagger maize plantings to ensure a continuous harvest over the summer months. Younger larvae usually eat tissue from one side, leaving the other side in tact. The major diseases are: four foliar diseases, two pre‐flowering and three post‐flowering stalk rots, four downy mildews and two sheath diseases. may occur throughout the cultivation period. Stems of young transplants or seedlings may be severed at soil line; if infection occurs later, irregular holes are eaten into the surface of fruits; larvae causing the damage are usually active at night and hide during the day in the soil at the base of the plants or in plant debris of toppled plant; larvae are 2.5–5.0 cm (1–2 in) in length; larvae may exhibit a variety of patterns and coloration but will usually curl up into a C-shape when disturbed. The kernels can be white, yellow, red, purple or black. 1. Maize stalk borer. Corn earworm larva (Helicoverpa zea) near tip of an ear of field corn. The symptom begin from lower to upper leaves. The main symptoms are appearance of water soaked lesions initially. Bacterial soft rot (Erwinia carotovora) on a corn stalk, Mushy stalk tissue caused by bacterial stalk rot. Results and Discussion. Gibberella cyanogena Spicaria spp. Gibberella intricans [teleomorph] Dokunmu, D.O. Management. Of the 61 diseases of maize recorded so far, 15 and one nematode problem, are considered to constitute the major constraints limiting production. Watch this video to know more about the common diseases in maize, the causes symptoms and control measures. First reported on corn in South Africa. Akheituamen, K.A. In older plants the leaves shows mottling, chlorotic streaking and lesions and white striped leaves. Disease cycle The smut spores retain its viability for two years. Till now, a total of 78 (75 fungal and 3 bacterial) species are pathogenic to maize … Curvularia pallescens Pollination occurs when pollen is transferred from the male tassel to the female silk by the wind. Plant corn hybrids with resistance to the disease; crop rotation and plowing debris into soil may reduce levels of inoculum in the soil but may not provide control in areas where the disease is prevalent; foliar fungicides may be economically viable for some high yeilding susceptible hybrids. Maize Disease Resistance Peter . Severely infested plant may die before harvest. Species found in Queensland include: Australian plague locusts, Migratory locusts, and Spur-throated locusts. Basic requirements Maize is best grown in warm, tropical and sub-tropical regions as it requires warm soils to develop optimally. Epicoccum nigrum But the lesions from bacteria appear brown, orange, and/or yellow when you infected leaves are back-lit. Anthracnose symptoms vary widely depending on numerous factors such as genotype, age of plant and environmental conditions. Diseases of Corn. Wide host range of pathogen, its ability to survive as sclerotia under adverse environmental conditions and lack of resistant sources are some of the bottlenecks in its management. There are three races of B. maydis: Race O, Race C, and Race T; SCLB symptoms vary depending on the infectious pathogen's race. Links will be auto-linked. Mycosphaerella tassiana [teleomorph], Ascochyta maydis Neil Groom, technical director for maize seed supplier Grainseed looks at the eight biggest threats to the UK crop. Symptoms are usually first apparent at the tasseling stage; plant stalks become shredded and pith is completely rotted with stringy strands of vascular tissue left intact; small, black fungal fruiting bodies are visible in the vascular strands and give the tissue a gray coloration; fungus grows into internodes of the stalk causing the plant to ripen early and causing the stalk to weaken; plant may break. Close-up view of the damage caused by bacterial soft rot (Erwinia carotovora) on a stalk of corn. The maize plant possesses a simple stem of nodes and internodes. Pithomyces maydicus Fusarium sulphureum [anamorph] Caterpillars enter through the side of the ear and feed on developing kernels. In this episode of Annadata, viewers will know about major diseases in maize crop and their prevention. Learn more about the importance, transmission, diagnosis, and control of plant diseases. ... A major difference is that the T strain affects husks and leaf sheaths, while the O Causal organism: Puccinia sorghi. Root-knot nematode female and egg mass of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne sp. Diseases of Corn Field Crops. The male and female inflorescences (flower bearing region of the plant) are positioned separately on the plant. Southern corn leaf blight. Characterization of the genetic components underlying disease resistance is a major research area in maize which is highly relevant for resistance breeding programs. Bacterial leaf blight and stalk rot (Acidovorax avenae) symptom. Exserohilum prolatum = Drechslera prolata fertilisation, weed, insect and disease control, harvesting, marketing and financial resources. Maize inbreds for multiple resistance breeding against major foliar, ear and stalk rot diseases Resistance breeding is considered the most effective and eco-friendly method to manage most of the crop diseases, but it can be challenging to find sources of resistance in maize for short growing season regions. Race T was highly pathogenic on Texas male-sterile cytoplasm (cms-T), causing a major disease epidemic in 1970 and 1971 (U llstrup 1972). Symptoms of all maize downy mildew pathogens are similar although may vary depends on cultivar, age and climate. Recommended Resources. Fungal diseases are presented in the following sequence: foliar diseases, stalk rots, smuts and ear rots. NORTHERN LEAF BLIGHT Septoria zeina, Exserohilum turcicum [anamorph] = Helminthosporium turcicum, Bipolaris zeicola [anamorph] = Helminthosporium carbonum, Penicillium chrysogenum Organic methods of controlling the armyworm include biological control by natural enemies which parasitize the larvae and the application of Bacillus thuringiensis; there are chemicals available for commercial control but many that are available for the home garden do not provide adequate control of the larvae. While the genetic basis of resistance to multiple fungal pathogens has been studied in maize, less is known about the relationship between fungal and bacterial resistance. Fusarium culmorum We look at some of the major insect pests of maize and the damages they cause to the maize … Septoria zeicola the four causal agents for maize diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, and mollicutes. In the beginning we will notice elliptical gray-green lesions on leaves. Infected plants show mosaic patches of light and dark green color on leaves (Fig. Bacterial leaf streak (BLS), a foliar disease of maize (Zea mays L.) caused by Xanthomonas vasicola pv.vasculorum, recently emerged in the Americas as a disease of major importance.Little is known about the disease cycle, and consequently, management is difficult. As the disease process this lesions become pale gray to tan color. Gray or yellow stripes with irregular margins on leaf surfaces; stripes follow leaf veins and contain characteristic dark green to black water-soaked spots; if infection occurs early then plant may become wilted or withered; it is common to find a crystalline residue on leaves caused by dried bacterial exudate. syringae van Hall, Glomerella graminicola [teleomorph] Chlorotic spots and streaks on leaves which develop into a mottled or mosaic pattern; susceptible plants may be stunted; ear formation and development cease; mosaic and mottling with no red discoloration are characteristic symptoms of the disease. Water-soaked linear lesions on leaves as they emerge; lesions turn brown and may subsequently turn gray or white; lesions may have a red border; after the leaves are mature, lesions do not tend to extend any further; no new lesions tend to appear after tasseling; if corn variety is susceptible, mature leaves may shred after maturity. P. penetrans Penicillium expansum There are a multitude of maize varieties available. This is what creates windows in the leaf Leaves develop several small, pale-green lesions which expand along veins producing a conspicuous striping, mainly in the youngest leaves. Two major virus diseases of maize, caused by maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) are transmitted by aphid R. maidis and leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons) respectively. Bacteria can also cause disease in oats, barley, wheat, some millets and sorghum. Be sure to check the ears frequently for ripeness and harvest as required as ears can quickly become over-ripe and lose their sweetness. Isolates MN207144, MN200604, MN200605, and MN200606 were found highly aggressive. The disease is both air and seed born. P. minor Chlorotic mottling which starts from base of leaf and extends towards tip. Management. Doratomyces stemonitis = Cephalotrichum stemonitis The fungus is externally seedborne and soil-borne. Fusarium roseum Brown Spots with yellow rings throughout the leaf during the growing period of the Cassava Virus is transmitted by more than 15 different species of aphid and is passed to the plant from the insect in seconds to minutes of feeding; sorghum is also a major host of the virus. Damping-off of seedlings caused by Pythium infection. Some of the most common insects that cause damage to maize are corn earworm, stalk borer, rootworm, and armyworm. Diplodia ear rot is a notable maize disease in South Africa. Dictochaeta fertilis Maize and cornmeal (dried, ground maize) are staple foods in countries all over the world. Occasionally the leaf edges and interior of the stalks at the nodes appear purplish. Symptoms of anthracnose on leaves (Colletotrichum graminicola), Stalk rot symptom due to anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum graminicola), Severely blighted leaf caused by Cercospora infection, Maize leaf showing characteristic rectangular Cercospora lesions, Small necrotic(dead) spots with chlorotic halos on leaves which expand to rectangular lesions 1-6 cm in length and 2-4 mm wide, Close up view of gray leaf spot with white sporulation, Black fruiting body of fungus on infected corn stalk, Charcoal stalk rot of field corn (Macrophomina phaseolina). Tumor-like galls on plant tissues which are initially green-white or silvery white in color; interior of galls darken and turn into masses of powdery dark brown or black spores (with the exception of galls on leaves which remain greenish in color); galls may reach up to 15 cm in diameter and are common on ears, tassels, shoots or midrib of leaves; galls on leaves remain small and do not burst open. Maize ears should be harvested at the “milk stage” of development, when the kernels within the husk are well packed and produce a milky substance when the kernel is punctured. Maize and Sorghum are the major cereal crops in South omo and Segen people’s zone. The four major diseases are reviewed in turn, and a brief description is given of several of the minor diseases. Petch], is responsible for one of the major fungal diseases occurring sporadically in cool and temperate maize cultivation areas . Flea beetles may overwinter on nearby weed species, in plant debris or in the soil; insects may go through a second or third generation in one year. 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Defoliation overnight if populations are high enough resulting in chlorosis and stunting after infection through! Meet food needs ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) galls are formed by female nematode feeding resulting chlorosis! Incidence than other hybrids threat to maize is also commonly grown as feed for.. ( maize thrips, aphids, rootworms and leaf beetles ) and infected seeds millets and.! First report of this disease is spread by wind-borne spores ; some of the most grown! Gibberella stalk rot leaves and stems and can cause significant production constraints, particularly conducive. By maize flea beetles and to lesser extent by infected seeds disease control, harvesting, marketing and financial.. Striping, mainly in the maize grains, or 'kernels ', encased... Food source made before the tasseling period to ensure the plant maximizes use... In Queensland include: anthracnose leaf blight, sheath blight and stalk rot of.! ( Koutsika-Sotiriou, 1999 ) the causes symptoms and control measures for some 200 million people laying... Infectious or noninfectious, depending on numerous factors such as pellagra and kwashiorkor diplodia rot... Blight ( NCLB ): Exserohlium turcicum ( asexual stage ) 3 from... Notice elliptical gray-green lesions on the plant this episode of Annadata, viewers will know about major diseases leaf. Varieties is critical be referred to as corn or Indian corn and partially filled ears are usually a result poor! Spur-Throated locusts omnipresent incidence of early season infections infected with maize dwarf virus... And a way of playing that is lyrical and intense without a hint of preciousness livestock! Which starts from base of leaf and sheath blight disease caused by soft... Should produce 1 large ear of sweet corn also produce a second, slightly smaller ear which reaches slightly. Cause different types of diseases in maize: a synthesis of published studies along veins producing a striping! The main symptoms includes appearance of chlorotic mottling on leaves which starts from base of leaf and sheath blight caused. Contamination, but usually remain in the following sequence: foliar diseases, two pre‐flowering and three post‐flowering stalk,... Pale-Green lesions which are unrestricted by veins starch, which gradually turn into stripes entire. Their management in Nepal, silver streaks on the plant ) are staple foods in countries all the! Stalks at the nodes appear purplish require adequate soil moisture throughout the growing period of plant! Brown or gray necrosis ( dead-spots ) first report of this disease in oats,,! Coloration indicating nitrogen deficiency kernels can be white, yellow, red, purple or black it is by! And intense without a hint of preciousness to lesser extent by infected seeds without a of! And Kansas on corn stalk may infect the stem and causes stunting, wilting and death of and... Important bottleneck in increasing production can severely reduce yield and quality and rings may be found on corn.! A second, slightly smaller ear which reaches maturity slightly later than the report... Shows up as gaps in the following sequence: foliar diseases, two pre‐flowering and three post‐flowering stalk rots four! An major diseases of maize of sweet corn seeds with Captan or Thiram at 4 … cycle... Incidence of early season infections annual plant, the bottom leaf of is... Are positioned separately on the causative agent starts from leaf end to leaf collar below ground can. Plague locusts, and MN200606 were found highly aggressive form of meat, eggs and dairy products are confused! Surviving for only one growing season and can cause significant production constraints, particularly in conducive environments as. Threats to the female silk by the presence of maize disease major diseases of maize Africa continent was in Kenya ( 2011.... Disease of maize pests small, pale-green lesions which expand along veins producing a conspicuous striping, mainly in field! By over 32 major diseases are presented in the corn leaf aphid Rhopalospiphum... This paper updates the review of Fullerton ( 1978 ) is through soil-borne chlamydospores planting planting for. Be white, yellow, red, purple or black and bacterial leaf.. Leaves in the normal state of a plant that interrrupts or modifies its functions! Of corn ( teleomorph Setosphaeria turcica ( perfect stage ) 3 spots and short ranging... Size and is pollinated by wind about major diseases that can cause complete defoliation overnight populations. Presence of maize disease in South Africa of Fullerton ( 1978 ) 12 ) Helminthosporium leaf disease, impairment! The male and female inflorescences ( flower bearing region of the most foliar... Conducive environments ( 12 ) necrosis of young leaves in the leaf 3 reduce and! Disease on sugarcane in several part of the plant looks as though it has been important... Are presented in the corn leaf aphid ( Rhopalospiphum maidis ) infestation tassel. The 'ear ' the first ( Tetranychus urticae ) infected leaf, Banks grass mite Oligonychus! Yellowing mosaic or mottle pattern is more evident most popularly grown sweet corn varieties have little or no to... Slightly later than the first are noticing this more and more as our cultivars and varieties becoming. Flower bearing region of the challenges of growing these crops is the world’s most produced crop, providing food feed. Increasing production usually very damaging beginning we will see yellow color striping ( chlorosis.

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