spain protectorate morocco

The Alhucemas landing was a landing operation which took place on 8 September 1925 at Alhucemas by the Spanish Army and Navy and, in lesser numbers, an allied French contingent, that would put an end to the Rif War. The Army of Africa or "Moroccan Army Corps" was a field army of the Spanish Army that garrisoned the Spanish protectorate in Morocco from the late 19th century until Morocco's independence in 1956. The Protectorate system was established in 1912. C.R. Like Melilla, the best spots to see at this Spanish exclave in Morocco is the plazas. The best is the one right in the town center, Plaza de Africa. [8] Spain received a zone of influence consisting of a northern strip of territory and a southern strip. The legal Islamic qadis system was formally maintained. Consisting of indigenous infantry and cavalry recruited in Spanish Morocco, forming part of the Army of Africa and officered by Spaniards, these troops played a significant role in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39). A month later Spain ceded most of its protectorate in Northern Morocco to the new state but kept its two coastal enclaves (Ceuta and Melilla) on the Mediterranean coast. While the sparsely populated Cabo Juby was administered as a single entity with Spanish Sahara, the northern territories of the Spanish zone of influence, consisting of the northern part of Morocco, except Ceuta, Melilla and Tangier, were administered as a protectorate with its capital at Tetuán (Tétouan). Compañía del Norte Africano 600 mm gauge industrial railway served the lead mines at Monte Afra with company's Melilla - Nador - Monte Afra line on the north coast. Later, when El Batel - Dar Driuch 23.5 km, El Batel - Ulad Candussi - Dar Quebdani 23 km, Dar Driuch - Tafersit 12 km had been decided to be built to standard 600 mm gauge field railways the Spanish Army bought a number of surplus former German built World War I locomotives and rolling stock from Germany. The Communist Party of Spain and Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM), advocated anti-colonial policies, and pressured the Republican government to support the independence of Spanish Morocco, intending to create a rebellion at Franco's back and cause disaffection among his Moroccan troops. In 1969, Morocco obtained Ifni. It is located in Guelmim-Oued Noun region and Sidi Ifni Province. "Min Khalifa Marrakesh Ila Mu’tamar Maghreb El Arabi." Since France had given up her ambitions in Ottoman Libya in a convention with Italy in 1903, she felt entitled to a greater share of Morocco. After the Treaty of Algeciras signed in April 1906, where the northern part of Morocco was placed under Spanish administration, the Spanish started to develop this mineral-rich area, and numerous narrow gauge railways were built. Controversy in Spain over the early conduct in the war was a driving factor behind the military coup by General Miguel Primo de Rivera in 1923 which foreshadowed the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39. The 10 km Ferrocarril Tetuan - Rio Martin y prolongaciones was opened on 20 May 1915 for public service. [2] While the sparsely populated Cape Juby was administered as a single entity with Spanish Sahara, the northern territories were administered, separately, as a Spanish protectorate with its capital at Tetuán. [12], The Spanish Civil War started in 1936 with the partially successful coup against the Republican Government, which began in Spanish Morocco by an uprising of the Spanish Army of Africa stationed there, although within a day uprisings in Spain itself broke out. [3] The city of Tangiers was excluded from the Spanish protectorate and received a special internationally-controlled status as Tangier International Zone. The consideration of the southern strip as part of the protectorate back in 1912 eventually gave Morocco a solid legal claim to the territory in the 1950s. European Colonization . The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.. [4] The surface area of the zone was about 20,948 km2 (8,088 sq mi), which represents 4.69% of modern-day Morocco. The Junta de Obras del Puerto de Melilla started at ones extensive building of harbour to carry mineral traffic overseas, mainly to Spain. Biographic and Emotional Repertoire) presented at the Spanish Lower House and is part of Iberdrola's commitment to education, history and culture. The capital, Rabat, lies a short distance to the north on the Atlantic coast. Spain considers both cities integral parts of the Spanish geography, since they were part of Spain for centuries before the occupation of Morocco. It established the French protectorate in Morocco, and remained in effect until the Franco-Moroccan Joint Declaration of March 2, 1956. The northern strip did not reach to the border of French Algeria, nor did it include Tangier, soon to be internationalized. Morocco sued for peace after the Spanish victory at the Battle of Tetuán. What exactly "special consideration" meant was dealt with in the secret third and fourth articles, specifying that Spain would be required to recognise Articles 4 and 7 of the treaty but could decline the "special consideration" if she wished: The two Governments agree that a certain extent of Moorish territory adjacent to Melilla, Ceuta, and other presides should, whenever the Sultan ceases to exercise authority over it, come within the sphere of influence of Spain, and that the administration of the coast from Melilla as far as, but not including, the heights on the right bank of the Sebou shall be entrusted to Spain. Sidi Ifni is a city located in southwest Morocco, on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. In spite of German protest, the French Protectorate over Morocco was established on 30 March 1912. These troops became the core of the Nationalist Army, which also recruited a considerable number of Moroccan troops. The Spanish protectorate consisted of a northern strip on the Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar, and a southern part of the protectorate around Cape Juby, bordering the Spanish Sahara. What to see in Ceuta, Spain. After the partition of Morocco into French and Spanish protectorate and the international zone of Tangier in 1912, France and Spain established postal services in their respective zones. As for the plazas de soberanía (Spanish name for various enclaves and islands on the northern Moroccan coast), they were gained in 16th–19th centuries, before the international agreements on the Protectorate. With new harbour installations the company built also a 750 mm gauge local 4.1 km harbour line from Melilla Harbour to Sidi Musa, later extended to the total length of 7 km as demanded by Spanish military. Another company, the Ferrocarril Nador-Tistutin built a 1000 mm gauge 36 km Nador - Tinequemart - Zeluan - Monte Arruit - Tistutin - El Batel line. The communist parties, the Communist Party of Spain and Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM), advocated anti-colonialist policies whereby the Republican Government would support the independence of Spanish Morocco, intending to create a rebellion in Franco's back and cause disaffection among his Moroccan troops. At a time when most European nations were stepping up the acquisition of vast colonial empires, Spain was losing the last remnants of hers. On April 7 of that ye… The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.. The Mauritania–Western Sahara border is 1,564 kilometres (972 mi) in length and runs from the tripoint with Algeria in the north-east to the Atlantic Ocean in the south-west. There he loudly touted Germany's economic interests in Morocco and assured the Sultan of financial assistance in the event of a threat to Moroccan independence. Over the preceding decade, large segments of the Moroccan heartland had fallen into French hands; it was only France’s reluctance to alarm other European states that kept her from declaring full dominion over Morocco before 1912. "Min Khalifa Marrakesh Ila Mu’tamar Maghreb El Arabi." The first years of the twenti… Spain … It began with a conflict over the borders of the Spanish city of Ceuta and was fought in northern Morocco. The Moroccan Sephardi Jews—many of them living in this part of the Maghreb after being expelled from Spain and Portugal in 1492 and 1497 respectively after the end of the Reconquista process—flourished in commerce, profiting from the similarity of Spanish and Ladino language and benefiting from the tax-exempt area in Tangier and a flourishing trading activity in the area. The postal history of Morocco is complex due to the country's political development in the 20th century. The final Spanish zone of influence consisted of a northern strip and a southern strip centred on Cape Juby. The government — then led by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) — rejected that course of action as it would have likely resulted in conflict with France, the colonial ruler of the other portion of Morocco. The Spanish suffered a major military defeat, almost always referred to by the Spanish as the Disaster of Annual, which led to major political crises and a redefinition of Spanish colonial policy toward the Rif. It had obtained mining rights at Idem, Beni Sidel and Mazuza areas. Despite the weakness of its authority, the Alaouite dynasty distinguished itself in the 18th and 19th centuries by maintaining Morocco’s independence while other states in the region succumbed to Turkish, French, or Britishdomination. The southern strip represented the southernmost part of Morocco as recognized by the European powers: the territory to its south, Saguia el-Hamra, was recognized by France as an exclusively Spanish zone. The harbour was built in 1911 - 1914 but World War I delayed the 34 km standard gauge railway line to Larache to 1922. [17] Morocco and Spain negotiated for over a year over Ifni, with Morocco also wanting control of Ceuta and Melilla, while Spain was only willing to give up control of Ifni. However, in the latter part of the nineteenth century Morocco’s weakness and instability invited European intervention to protect threatened investments and to demand economic concessions. France occupied Ujda and Casablanca in 1907, whereas Spain occupied Salwan and other strategic places in 1909. In 1906, the Algeciras Conference recognized France and Spain's claims for power in the region. As the protectorate ended, Spain remained on the map of Morocco with its two coastal enclaves, Ceuta and Melilla, but left Western Sahara in 1975 to joint Moroccan-Mauritanian control. It was formally defined as a Spanish Protectorate nine months later as a result of a subsequent Treaty between France and Spain regarding Morocco signed in Madrid 27 November 1912. Spanish Sahara, officially the Province of the Sahara between 1958 and 1976, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled by Spain between 1884 and 1976. The length of this lead carrier was 19 km. The iron mines in the Rif were one of the sources of income. The two Governments, inspired by their feeling of sincere friendship for Spain, take into special consideration the interests which that country derives from her geographical position and from her territorial possessions on the Moorish coast of the Mediterranean. By the mid-1800s, at a time when the influence of the Ottoman Empire was in decline, France and Spain began taking a great interest in Morocco. (1947, April). Since France already held a protectorate over the entire country and controlled Morocco's foreign affairs (since 30 March 1912), it also held the power to delegate a zone to Spanish protection. [11]. The line was opened on 17 Marc 1918. constitute a special internationalized zone. Spanish troops provisionally occupied Tangier during World War II, on the pretext that an Italian invasion was imminent.[3]. The Algeria–Western Sahara border is 41 km in length and runs from the tripoint with Morocco in the north to the tripoint with Mauritania in the south. That country, if only because of its geographical position and the presence of the presidios of Ceuta, and Melilla, could not be ignored by the Spaniards despite their lack of enthusiasm for new colonial enterprises. Unwilling to accept this, the Moroccan Army of Liberation waged war against the Spanish forces. The Sultankept a nominal sovereignty. However, the Republican Government under the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) rejected any such idea - which would have likely resulted in conflict with France, the colonial ruler of the other portion of Morocco.[4]. Its exploitation led to an economic boom in Melilla. It has a population of approximately 20,000 people. In spite of any belief that colonial possessions enhanced the standing of a nation, most parliamentary politicians were reluctant, particularly after the 1898 disaster, to cast Spain into a colonial role. Following the First World War, the Republic of the Rif, led by the guerrilla leader Abd el-Krim, was a breakaway state that existed from 1921 to 1926 in the Rif region, when it was subdued and dissolved by joint expedition of the Spanish Army of Africa and French forces during the Rif War. The Spanish protectorate consisted of a northern strip on the Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar, and a southern part of the protectorate around Cape Juby, bordering the Spanish … Morocco’s largest city and major Atlantic Ocean port is Casablanca. Portions of northwest Africa held by Spain from the 1500s until 1975.. This map shows the division of colonized Morocco between Spain and France. Initially, a Spanish zone of influence in Morocco was established in 1912,[2] consisting of the northern part of the country and the Cape Juby Strip. In spring 1914 the Compañía Española de Minas del Rif operated three daily passenger trains to Nador of which two continued to San Juan de las Minas with corresponding return workings to Melilla. Ceuta and Melilla are two cities in dispute between Spain and Morocco. At Wilhelm's urging, Sultan Abd el Aziz called for an international conference. The final act of the Algeciras Conference (7 April 1906) created the State Bank of Morocco, guaranteed the attending powers equal commercial rights in Morocco and created a native Moroccan police force led by French and Spanish officers. In the end of the XIXth century, there were a lot of revolts in Moroccoand the European powers decided to solve the “Moroccan problem”. The Protectorate system was established in 1912. Pennel, Morocco Since 1830, A History, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, States and territories established in 1913, Ferrocarril Tetuan - Rio Martin y prolongaciones, List of Spanish High Commissioners in Morocco, Treaty Between France and Spain Regarding Morocco, http://books.google.com/books?id=lkOXLMhNqLcC, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Spanish_Protectorate_in_Morocco?oldid=5250124. It is considered the first amphibious landing in history involving the use of tanks and massive seaborne air support. The Junta de Obras and the Compañía Transatlántica Española were merged to form a new company, the Junta de Fomento de Melilla on 16 December 1911. The earliest of these were established in the 11th century CE by the Italian Maritime republics; Spain and Portugal were the main European powers involved; both France and, briefly, England also had a presence. [5], The key motivation for intervention, although less openly stated, was the belief that Morocco was Spain’s last chance to maintain its position in the Concert of Europe, as it was the one area in which it could claim sufficient interest to generate some diplomatic strength with respect to the European powers. Because the locally recruited Muslim regulares had been among Franco's most effective troops, the protectorate enjoyed more political freedom and autonomy than Francoist Spain-proper after Franco's victory. The Islamic legal system of qadis was formally maintained. Before 1934, the southern part of the protectorate (Tekna) [12] was governed from Cape Juby (within the same southern strip) since 1912; Cape Juby was also head of the Spanish West Africa. Spanish troops provisionally occupied Tangier during World War II, on t… Both companies had common locomotive shed at Beni Ensar. The Spanish protectorate consisted of a northern strip on the Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar, and a southern part of the protectorate around Cape Juby, bordering the Spanish … Tangier (q.v.) The sultan agreed to institute reforms that would transform Morocco into a constitutional monarchy with a democratic form of government. The Battle of Annual was fought on July 22, 1921, at Annual in northeastern Morocco, between the Spanish Army and Berber Riffian combatants during the Rif War. The Compañía del Norte Africano and the Compañía Minera Setolazar, both of 600 mm gauge. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license. [citation needed]. In 2000, an important fishing port was completed, which serves as a base for fish exports. The Spanish Protectorate extends over a zone of about 18,30o sq.m., with an estimated population of 460,000 (1923). After France's military intervention against Abd el-Krim's forces and the major landing of Spanish troops at Al Hoceima, considered the first amphibious landing in history to involve the use of tanks and aircraft, Abd el-Krim surrendered to the French and was taken into exile. Cape Juby is a cape on the coast of southern Morocco, near its border with Western Sahara, directly east of the Canary Islands. The Hispano-Moroccan War, also known as the Spanish–Moroccan War, the First Moroccan War, the Tetuán War, or, in Spain, as the African War, was fought from Spain's declaration of war on Morocco on 22 October 1859 until the Treaty of Wad-Ras on 26 April 1860. Such beliefs made Spanish politicians more receptive to the adoption of a forward policy in Morocco. The Protectorate did not formally include Ceuta and Melilla. Morocco, mountainous country of western North Africa that lies directly across the Strait of Gibraltar from Spain. Yet within a few years after the disastrous war of 1898 with the United States, which had forced Spaniards to acknowledge their secondary status among European military powers, their government found it necessary to show an active interest in expansion in northern Morocco. Spain also received a strip of desert land in the southwest, known as Tarfaya, … France was granted the rest and in 1912, the Treaty of Fez officially made Morocco a protectorate of France. Initially, a Spanish zone of influence in Morocco was established in 1912, consisting of the northern part of the country and the Cape Juby Strip. 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Franco-Moroccan Joint Declaration of March 2, 1956 's annexation of western Sahara in 1975 France granted! Melilla, the Treaty of Angra de Cintra on 1 April 1958, after the short Ifni.. Was opened on 20 May 1915 for public service Italian invasion spain protectorate morocco imminent. [ 3 the. And was fought in northern Morocco political parties and a Moroccan Nationalist press, which often the! Culminated in the southwest region of the 19th century, Spain observed with apprehension the increasing of. Last decades of the protectorate was followed by a revolt at Fez ( April.. City located in southwest Morocco, south of Agadir and across from the Ait tribe... Involving the use of tanks and massive seaborne air support April 1958, after the successful 1925 Alhucemas landing the... 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