Now in the story of Joseph, we learn that his father-in-law was the “priest of On” at the time of Joseph’s marriage: GEN 41:45 And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphnathpaaneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On. There Joseph eventually gains the favour of the pharaoh of Egypt by his interpretation of a dream and obtains a high place in the pharaohâs kingdom. There are 11 of them, with only one containing a very elaborate stairway extending all the way to the bottom. For example, in some inscriptions, his titles indicate that he was not a member of the royal family, but a “self-made man”. Da Vinci gained the reputation of a genius- Imhotep was eventually elevated to the status of a god. Egypt at this time was already a rich nation, for it was at this time that Abraham became rich in cattle, gold and silver, given to him as payment for Sarah. Well, it gets even more familiar as we examine the text of these manuscripts. The consequence of all of this math is that if we start from Abrahamâs arrival in Canaan, the length of time actually spent in Egypt is reduced by (25+60+130=215) years.Â So, if we follow the Septuagint, Galatians 3:17, and Josephus we have what is known as a âshortâ sojourn of 215 years.Â Following the Masoretic text and the Dead Sea Scrolls give us a âlongâsojourn of 430 years.Â In order to choose between these two approaches, we first need to look at Josephâs activities in Egypt. Pharaoh gave him the Egyptian name Zaphenath-paneah and found him a â¦ 6 Then Joseph, all his brothers, and that entire generation died. Some ancient historians have written of the fact that the pyramids were once believed to be “Joseph’s storage bins” for the grain, and perhaps this story has its roots in the fact Joseph designed the first pyramid in the same complex in which the grain was stored. David Rohl, author of Test of Time, suggests âRamses II should be dated to the tenth century BCâsome three hundred and fifty years later than the date which had been assigned him in the orthodox chronology.â1 Peter James and four other scholars published the book Centuries of Darâ¦ In our discussion of “Imhotep, the Physician”, we mentioned that ancient Greek texts speak of a place near Memphis where people came to worship “Imhotep” and be healed. However, as noted above, there is overwhelming archaeological, and I think textual, evidence to place Joseph in the late twelfth dynasty of the Middle Kingdom period.Â In order to arrive at a date in this period using the orthodox chronology, it is necessary to accept the long sojourn of 430 years.Â David Rohl, chief proponent of the new chronology (and a self-proclaimed agnostic â which I believe gives him additional credibility), uses the archaeological evidence to support a short sojourn of 215 years with an exodus in the late thirteenth dynasty.Â The new chronology then adjusts the regnal dates for this period to align the exodus with the early date of 1446 BC.Â I should note here that the new chronology was not created to solve this particular question, rather it was devised as part of Rohlâs work on the Third Intermediate Period in Egyptian History which roughly parallels the period of the Hebrew Kings.Â The result however is an amazing alignment between the archaeological evidence and the biblical chronology. Joseph brought up all the land for Pharaoh by selling the grain he stored during the seven years that preceded the famine  ; a feat that could only have been performed once, early in Egypt’s history, and explains how the Pharaohs became so powerful and able to built the pyramids. The name the Bible states that was given to Joseph by the pharaoh, “Zaphenath-paneah”, has been translated by some to mean, “the God lives; the God speaks”. All of the components of the Biblical account are present in this inscription, except that the story has been “Egyptianized” to fit their religious beliefs. JOH 8:58 Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am. The evidences which parallel the story of Joseph in more detail are the focus of this newsletter. Josephâs prediction and advice pleased Pharaoh and he made Joseph his second-in-command. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt. years. All available information about Imhotep continues to point to his identification with Joseph. God told Moses to tell the pharaoh that “I AM” had sent him because “I AM” was the name by which the Egyptians had known Joseph’s God. Josephâs life is a series of highs and lows â literally and figuratively. They begin as Solomon’s Proverbs begin, as instructions to his son, with the admonition they are “profitable to him who will hear” but “woe to him who would neglect them”. 19th century source criticism divided the Joseph story between the Jahwist, Elohist and Priestly sources of the documentary hypothesis. The time of the 300 Year Gap Among the historical enigmas that the Bible serves up to us is the identity of Josephâs Pharaoh, the one who made Joseph a ruler in Egypt. Joseph and the Famine: The Storyâs Origins in Egyptian History During the reign of Pharaoh Siptah, Egypt had a powerful vizier from the Levant named Baya, who dominated even the Pharaoh. 56 And the famine was over all the face of the earth: and Joseph opened all the storehouses, and sold unto the Egyptians; and the famine waxed sore in the land of Egypt. He then ordered his men to escort Abraham and his entourage out of Egypt. Let’s look at a few passages from this inscription and compare them with the Biblical account, keeping in mind that this was written a millenium after the events it claims to be describing: 1. Joseph is made the Chief Steward of the King, a role that historically These hundreds of thousands of ibis were mummified and brought here as tribute to Imhotep, filling these tunnels. Intermediate Period (2000-1500 BC in the orthodox chronology). While sleeping, the god, Imhotep, was said to come to people in their dreams and cure them. Woodsuggests that this new king is an unidentified figure somewhere prior to Amenhotep I, perhaps one of the Hyksos kings.Â The Hyksos dynasty was preceded by one where the kings have Canaanite or Western Semitic names, raising the possibility that some of these may have even been Hebrews. We donât know why the Bible doesnât give us this pharaohâs nameâalthough bear in mind that every pharaoh of ancient Egypt â¦ Woodâs argument is that Pithom and Rameses (at the time known a Avaris) were built before the 18th dynasty indicating that the enslavement began under the Hyksos. April 5, 2010,  Pharaoh changes Josephâs name.Â The Asiatics that settled in the Nile delta region spoke Canaanite and West Semitic dialects that would be very similar if not identical to ancient Hebrew.Â Thus,there would have been no need to change Josephâs name, and if it were changed the new name would be easily translated into Hebrew.Â Instead, Pharaoh gives Joseph an Egyptian name, âZaphnath-paaneahâ. Absolutely not- the pharaoh had recognized the power of the God of Joseph, and even though the Egyptians remained idolaters, Joseph made them aware of his God and was unswerving in his loyalty to Him. 35 And let them gather all the food of those good years that come, and lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh, and let them keep food in the cities.  Aling, Egyptian slaves were often given Egyptian names and we have texts where they are referred to as [Semitic name] , he who is called,[Egyptian name].Â Egyptian for, âhe who is calledâ, is, spelled phonetically, âZatenafâ.Â Kenneth Kitchen and David Rohl have(separately) identified âZaphnathâ as being a corruption of zatenaf. ECC 6:2 A man to whom God hath given riches, wealth, and honour, so that he wanteth nothing for his soul of all that he desireth, yet God giveth him not power to eat thereof, but a stranger eateth it: this is vanity, and it is an evil disease. GEN 37:20 Come now therefore, and let us slay him, and cast him into some pit, and we will say, Some evil beast hath devoured him: and we shall see what will become of his dreams. At his death or disability, it follows that his son-in-law would be assigned his position, especially if that son-in-law were so highly regarded by the pharaoh as Joseph was. Could “Im” have been “I AM”? The Egyptian king is the principal villain of the Exodus story. Ancient Greek writings mention a great sanctuary at Memphis where people came from everywhere to seek cures from Imhotep. Josephus relates that Abraham was responsible for bringing the knowledge of arithmetic and astronomy to the Egyptians, which may also be true. And while this wisdom was revered by the Egyptians and carried down through the ages by their sages who copied some of his writings, (claiming it as their own), some of these same “wisdom sayings” were recorded by some of Joseph’s descendants over 700 years later, and ultimately were preserved for us in the Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Psalms. 43 And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him, Bow the knee: and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt. Genesis gives us a number of interesting details that suggest that the Pharaoh of the Joseph story was an Egyptian, and not an Asiatic.Â These are provided in detail in Charles Alingâs six-part series on the topicand I will summarize them here. Josephs story began in Genesis 30 when he was born to Jacob and Rachel. '” Imhotep answers: “I need the guidance of Him who presides over the fowling net,…”. Implementation of Josephâs plan would require a strong central government for several reasons.Â First, in order to be able to effectively tax the produce of the land in the years of plenty. Another key link dating the Joseph tale to the 7th century CE is the Egyptian names in the story: of Zaphenath-panea (the grand vizier of the Pharaoh), Potiphera (a priest), Asenath (Potipheraâs daughter) were at the height of popularity in use in the 7th-6th centuries BCE. One of them was Joseph, the favorite son of Jacob. Topic#: 00717 from WWW.GODSAIDMANSAID.COM. The sojourn in Egypt was in fulfillment of the prophecy given to Abraham when God made His covenant with him: 13Then He said to Abram:âKnow certainly that your descendants will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and will serve them, and they will afflict them four hundred years. In the new chronology, the Middle Kingdom period is moved later by approximately two hundred years, with the exodus occurring at the end of the thirteenth dynasty under the Pharaoh Dudimose (Manethoâs Tutimaos).Â With this adjustment, Rohl places the birth of Moses in the reign of Neferhotep I and his upbringing under Sebekhotep IV.Â Consequently, the enslavement of the Hebrews by the, âPharaoh who did not know Josephâ, would have taken place under Sobekhotep III or shortly before.Â Of interest is the fact that Rohl identifies the vizier of Sobekhotep III as Iymeru II, or Ephraim, son of Ephraim, son of Joseph. After Joseph’s death, others copied his wise sayings and took credit for them, perhaps adding a bit of their own and changing things to suit them. Because of his great favor with the king, these came to be revered by the scribes and people. Every city had stored grain from its region, but at this complex at Sakarra, we have these massive pits which would have stored an incredible amount of grain- more than a single city would have needed. or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? Keep in mind that the Originator of Joseph’s wisdom was also the Originator of Solomon’s wisdom, and the parallels between the 2 are undeniable. The Bible Story of Joseph from the Book of Genesis. Unlike the pharaoh who knew Joseph, the pharaoh of Moses is cruel and vindictive. In the new testament we find a couple of additional references to the length of time the children of Israel spent in Egypt. While these details are important, we canâtforget the larger context of the story itself. We are told in the Bible that Solomon knew many, many proverbs: 1KI 4:30 And Solomon’s wisdom excelled the wisdom of all the children of the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt. For example, in “Song from the Tomb of King Intef”, we read: “I have heard the words of Imhotep and Hardedef…”. This name has been discovered in an inscription of the later, Bubastid period (9th century B.C. Who is the god? Now Joseph was already in Egypt. The Biblical account is extremely short on the subject of Abraham’s visit to Egypt (Gen. 12:10-20) but we do learn that Abraham misled the pharaoh about who Sarah was- he told him she was his sister. Where did they go to get the grain? This was unique because the son of the pharaoh was usually the vizier. ‘Entangled in the land’?…or… ‘a way in the deep’? Imhotep is the earliest physician whose historical records survive, and although Joseph isn’t mentioned as being a physician, the Bible gives one very important clue to this: GEN 50:2 And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father: and the physicians embalmed Israel. (Gen. 12:12-15). Jacob lived for seventeen years after arriving in Egypt and lived a total of one hundred forty-seven years (Genesis 47:28).Â Therefore, Jacob arrived in Egypt at the age of one hundred thirty, having buried his father Isaac ten years earlier.Â. There are records of many, many viziers throughout Egyptian history- but the first evidence which connects Imhotep with Joseph is an amazing inscription found carved on a large rock on the island of Sihiel just below the First Cataract of the Nile. In the Bible, Joseph interprets the pharaohs dream. ), and was written in Egyptian Djedâpaânetjerâiufâankh, meaning, âThe god speaks that he may live.â. This theory, coupled with the orthodox chronology, has been attractive to the secular world because it is presumed that an Asiatic king would be much more likely than an Egyptian one to advance Joseph to such a high position.Â In addition, the mention of a chariot in Genesis 41:43 has, given that the Hyksos introduced war chariots to Egypt, been used to tie Joseph to the Hyksos period.Â While chariots were not present in large numbers prior to the Hyksos, it is unlikely that they were completely unknown in the Middle Kingdom, and it is natural to believe that Pharaoh would have one or two for his use.. Abraham left Haran in about 1921 BC, about 427 years later. There could have been several “cashiers” of each language group to handle the purchases of those who spoke the various languages. 5) “Teach the great what is useful to him.”. 2 ) Originally, when his advisors came up with the idea of enslaving the Jews, he rejected it outright out of a sense of gratitude to Joseph, who had been so good to Egypt. Imhotep was also revered for his wisdom. Of course, the Egyptologists think all these little cubicles were for statues, however, no pedestals were found in the remains, which is a very important point, because these statues were always erected on pedestals. In fact, it sounds as if Joseph was the first person ever given such honor by a pharaoh, which is confirmed by evidences in Egypt. At the entrance to this complex, as we described earlier, there are 40 small cubicles, each just the right size to hold a single person who could administer the receipt of payment from people coming to purchase grain. Is there a connection between Joseph and dreams? No inscriptions were found on the walls and the sarcophagus was empty. The following is from Gerald E. Aardsma, A New Approach to the Chronology of Biblical History from Abraham to Samuel, 2nd ed. It is also reasonable to expect to find the storage pits within an enclosure such as this complex, with an area for the payment of the grain. When Joseph reported having dreams of his brothers, and even the stars and moon, bowing before him, their jealousy of Joseph grew into action. While these details are important, we canât April 5, 2010. Does this fit the Biblical account? Charles, PhD; âJoseph in Egypt, Part Vâ, Associates for Biblical Research, For years, the popular media has mocked the biblical accounts of Joseph, Moses, the Passover, and the Exodus as being completely incompatible with standard Egyptian chronology. Let’s take a look…. 11 Then a famine came over all the land of Egypt and Canaan, causing great affliction. PRO 18:21 Death and life are in the power of the tongue: and they that love it shall eat the fruit thereof. This passage reflects the fact of a dream by the pharaoh of 7 years of plenty and 7 years of famine, although reversed. It was he who, by Godâs hand, made Pharaoh the ultimate Egyptian power that he became. Excavation at this settlement has revealed a small palace belonging to a high ranking official.Â This palace was originally fronted by twelve columns.Â Later, the palace was expanded to add two identical sets of living quarters in front of the original structure. And in ancient Egypt, the people didn’t live too much longer than about 50. There are definite records for the Biblical Joseph in Egyptian history. It was later discovered that these galleries connected to a pit that extends down to a funerary chamber which contains an empty coffin. The name, Imhotep, in ancient Egyptian is translated to mean “the voice (or mouth) of Im”; however, there is no record of a god in Egypt called “Im”. And, it is one of the best preserved site in Egypt- certainly of the very old structures- and this is consistent with God’s preservation of important evidences which confirm the total accuracy of His Word. A Semitic settlement dating from the late twelfth dynasty has been found at Avaris, in the land of Goshen.Â Avaris was later renamed Rameses. There is also a picture in the tomb of Tehuti-hetep in Bersheh which has a picture of a herd of Syrian cattle entering Egypt with the inscription: “Once you trod the Syrian sands. Therefore, we know that these massive pits had another purpose. In the Biblical account, we learn that Joseph appointed men throughout the land of Egypt to oversee the gathering and storing of the grain in all the cities: GEN 41:34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint officers over the land, and take up the fifth part of the land of Egypt in the seven plenteous years. This doesn’t mean that Solomon copied from the ancient Egyptians- it means that the God of His Fathers gave the same wisdom to his ancestors, who included Joseph, that He gave to Solomon. The king gave Joseph a new name âZaphnath-paaneah ( Genesis 41:45 ). The exodus took place at Passover which would be in the spring.Â Based on this verse the entry into Egypt would have also been in the spring of the third lean year. Required fields are marked *. He gave Joseph his ring and dressed him in robes of linen with a gold chain around his neck.  Aling, (Genesis 15:13-16). After discovering Sarah's true relationship to Abraham, the pharaoh chooses not to take her as his own wife. Here are some: First – Inscriptions. supervised the agricultural production of Pharaohâs estates and was responsible This prompted feelings of jealousy within his brothers, especially the sons of Jacobâs other wâ¦ The Pharaohs became wealthy and powerful because of Joseph. Here is absolute proof that this was the tomb of a very important person of Djoser’s reign. (Originally published in Newsletter No. All the pits are connected to each other by a subterranean tunnel- the pits were filled and the tops were sealed with wooden timbers and stone. Also, in all the other ancient cities, whenever large bins such as these were uncovered, they were recognized as “storage bins”, but in Egypt, the scholars tend to term everything they find a “tomb”. The final verse, from Galatians, the Septuagint, and Josephus have been used to date the beginning of the four hundred or four hundred and thirty years from the date of Abramâs arrival in Canaan at the age of seventy-five, from Abrahamâs brief sojourn in Egypt, from the renewal of the covenant when Abraham was 99 years old, or from the birth of Isaac a year later.Â This is known as the short sojourn: the time that the children of Israel were actually in Egypt is reduced by the time from the covenant or the birth of Isaac until the family of Jacob physically arrived in Egypt.Â The long sojourn theory takes the literal interpretation of Exodus 12:40-41 and starts counting from Jacobâs arrival.Â Thus, in order to understand the two main theories on where to date Joseph, we have to go back a little further, to Abraham and Isaac, and see what this means in terms of our timeline. And tells joseph pharaoh history where he lives became jealous and dressed him in robes linen! 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