Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world, is found there, as well as the Himalaya Mountains. The Mallas ruled the valley first under the suzerainty of Tirhut, but established independent reign by late 14th century as Tirhut went into decline. [e] Himal is the mountain region containing snow and situated in the Great Himalayan Range; it makes up the northern part of Nepal. Before the unification of Nepal, the Kathmandu valley was known as Nepal. Nepal is a multi-ethnic, multiracial, multicultural, multi-religious, and multilingual country. In the coup d'état of 1846, the nephews of Jung Bahadur and Ranodip Singh murdered Ranodip Singh and the sons of Jung Bahadur, adopted the name of Jung Bahadur and took control of Nepal. The earthquake also triggered an avalanche on Mount Everest, killing 21.  Many Nepalese are believed to be working under slavery-like conditions, and Nepal spends billions of rupees rescuing stranded workers, on remuneration to the indebted families of the dead, and in legal costs for those arrested in foreign countries. As the cherished of Ne, the valley would be called Nepāl. The remains are still scattered across the Simroungarh region.  The annual population growth rate was 1.35% between 2001 and 2011, compared to an average of 2.25% between 1961 and 2001; also attributed to the absentee population.. Tibetan refugees began arriving in 1959, and many more cross into Nepal every year.  Nepal police, Armed police force and Nepal army are the most prolific producers of national players, and aspiring players are known to join armed forces, for the better sporting opportunities they can provide.  Nepal lies almost completely within this collision zone, occupying the central sector of the Himalayan arc, nearly one third of the 2,400 km (1,500 mi)-long Himalayas, with a small strip of southernmost Nepal stretching into the Indo-Gangetic plain and two districts in the northwest stretching up to the Tibetan plateau.. According to the Gopal genealogy, the Lichhavis established their rule in Nepal by defeating the last Kirati King 'Khigu', 'Galiz' according to the language-genealogy and 'Gasti' according to Wright genealogy. Nepal democratic party was established in 2064 B.S. Stella Kramrisch ( 1964 ) mentions a substratum of a race of Pre - Dravidians and Dravidians , who were in Nepal even before the Newars , who formed the majority of the ancient inhabitants of the valley of Kathmandu.. Seven other of the world's "eight-thousanders" are in Nepal or on its border with China: Lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Kangchenjunga, Dhaulagiri, Annapurna and Manaslu. Nepal appears in ancient Indian literary texts dated as far back as the fourth century BC. People in rural areas had expected that their interests would be better represented after the adoption of parliamentary democracy in 1990.  Contraceptive prevalence rate is 53% but the disparity rate between rural and urban areas is high due to a lack of awareness and easy access. Terai is the lowland region containing some hill ranges.  Sports like basketball, volleyball, futsal, wrestling, competitive bodybuilding and badminton are also gaining in popularity. Nepal is home to at least four indigenous sign languages. A Joint People's Agitation Committee was set up by the various groups.  A communist insurgency was crushed in its cradle in the 1970s, which led to the eventual coalescence of hitherto scattered communist factions under the United Left Front. Nepal is a multi-cultural, multi-linguistic and multi religious country. It is landlocked, and borders China in the north and India in the south, east and west, while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim.  The first documented tribes in Nepal are the Kirat people, who arrived into Nepal from Tibet roughly 4000 to 4500 years ago and moved into the Kathmandu valley and southern parts of Nepal, before being made to retreat elsewhere by the invading Licchavais from India who ruled the Kathmandu valley in modern-day southern parts of Nepal. Bir Narsingh Kunwar emerged victorious and founded the Rana dynasty, and came to be known as Jung Bahadur Rana. Delineating the area between the Sun Koshi and Tama Koshi rivers as their native land, the list of Kirati kings is also given in the Gopal genealogy. After the death of King Raghava Dev, many Thakuri kings ruled southern Nepal up to the middle of the 12th century CE. The 2006 Democracy Movement (Nepali: लोकतन्त्र आन्दोलन, romanized: Loktantra Āndolan) is a name given to the political agitations against the direct and undemocratic rule of King Gyanendra of Nepal.The movement is also sometimes referred to as Jan Andolan II ("People's Movement"), implying it being a second phase of the 1990 Jana Andolan. Some former territories had been lost due to the kingdom having participated in the Sino-Nepalese War which ended in both victory and loses, ultimately accepting as a tribute state of Qing dynasty of China from 1792 to 1865. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who later renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, and came to be known as Gautama Buddha (traditionally dated 563–483 BCE).  With the death of both the King and the Crown Prince in a massacre in the royal palace, King Birendra's brother Gyanendra inherited the throne in 2001 and subsequently assumed full executive powers aiming to quash the Maoist insurgency himself. The mountains vary from 800 to 4,000 metres (2,600 to 13,100 ft) in altitude, with progression from subtropical climates below 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) to alpine climates above 3,600 metres (11,800 ft). The sixth point of the treaty directly questions the degree of independence of Nepal.  A seven-party coalition resumed control of the government and stripped the king of most of his powers.  The breeding programmes coupled with community-assisted military patrols, and a crackdown on poaching and smuggling, has seen poaching of critically endangered tigers and elephants as well as vulnerable rhinos, among others, go down to effectively zero, and their numbers have steadily increased. The British force was defeated in Sindhuli by the Gorkhali army. There emerged a view that Nepal remained the true bastion of unadulterated Hinduism at a time when Indian culture had been influenced by centuries of Mughal, followed by British rule. The Crime Investigation Department of Nepal Police specializes in criminal investigation and forensic analysis. Emperor Ashoka made a pilgrimage to Lumbini and erected a pillar at Buddha's birthplace, the inscriptions on which mark the starting point for properly recorded history of Nepal. Life expectancy at birth is estimated at 71 years as of 2017, 153rd highest in the world, up from 54 years in the 1990s. The CA is responsible for electing the President (the head of state) and the Prime Minister (head of government). A 10-member cabinet under Prime Minister Mohan Shumsher with 5 members of the Rana family and 5 of the Nepali Congress was formed.  Despite efforts, standardization and development of dandi biyo has not been achieved, while Kabaddi, as a professional sport, is still in its infancy in Nepal. He is said to have built Navabahal and Hemavarna Vihara. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British and assisted the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and later in both World Wars.  Eastern half of Nepal is richer in biodiversity as it receives more rain, compared to western parts, where arctic desert-type conditions are more common at higher elevations.  In the elections held on 10 April 2008, the Maoists secured a simple majority, with the prospect of forming a government to rule the proposed 'Republic of Nepal'. In a Licchavi-era inscription found in Tistung, the local people have been addressed as the 'Nepals'. Nepal has become a Federal Democratic Republic from today after the Constituent Assembly overwhelmingly voted for abolition of the country’s 240-year-old monarchy. Per capita income is $1,004. It is mentioned in some genealogies and Puranas that the "Suryavansi Kshetriyas had established a new regime by defeating the Kirats".  The community forestry program which has seen a third of the country's population directly participate in managing a quarter of the total forested area, has helped the local economies while reducing human-wildlife conflict.  The country's new designation as the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal was submitted to the United Nations on 4 August 2008, and later confirmed by the constitution. The Constitution of Nepal was finally adopted on 20 September 2015. Now, we are in the process of making a ‘New Nepal’ on the federal concept. The most comprehensive introduction to the history of Nepal, concentrating on the modern period, is J. Whelpton, A History of Nepal.  Since the formation of the national team, Nepal has played its home matches of cricket at Tribhuvan University International Cricket Ground.  During the 1950s, efforts were made to frame a constitution for Nepal that would establish a representative form of government, based on a British model. The traditional one called the chaubandi cholo, like the daura, is full-sleeved, double-breasted with pleats and strings, and extends down to the patuka, covering the midriff. The government lacks data on Indian immigrants as they do not require permits to live and work in Nepal; Government of India puts the number of non-resident Indians in the country at 600,000.. , Football and cricket are popular professional sports.  In the aftermath of the 2017 elections, the first one according to the new constitution, NCP, formed by the merger of CPN (UML) and CPN (Maoist Centre) has become the ruling party at the federal level and in six out of seven provinces. Prithvi Narayan Shah (c. 1779–1875) was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah (1559–1570), the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha. Africa's History & Migrations 200,000bc-3,000bc , In 1996, the Maoist Party started a violent bid to replace the royal parliamentary system with a people's republic. The historical first of the Constituent Assembly (CA) has endorsed a proposal to amend the interim constitution implementing the declaration of Nepal as a federal democratic republic.  The oldest discovered archaeological evidence of human settlements in Nepal dates to around the same time. "Nepal Will Amend Constitution to End Border Blockade", https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Indian-blockade-more-inhuman-than-war-says-Nepal-PM-KP-Sharma-Oli/articleshow/49690974.cms, https://www.deccanherald.com/content/505354/india-denies-imposing-economic-blockade.html, Nepal: An Historical Study of a Hindu Kingdom, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Nepal&oldid=991972591, Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field from June 2018, Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from June 2018, Articles containing Nepali (macrolanguage)-language text, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Some inhabitants of northern Nepal came from.  Saptakoshi, in particular, carries huge amount of silt out of Nepal but sees extreme drop in Gradient in Bihar, causing severe floods and course changes, and is therefore, known as the sorrow of Bihar. Other variants found in medieval texts are 'Nepar' and 'Newal'. If Nepal is to be declared a secular country, all countries, which call themselves as Christian or Muslim countries should also be declared secular countries. Now each province has a separate government along with its federal government at the centre. It has been combined with an underskirt, or the petticoat, and tucked in the waistband for more secure fastening. In this account, the cow that issued milk to the spot, at which Nepa discovered the Jyotirlinga of Pashupatināth upon investigation, was also named Ne. He was known in his lifetime as "Siddhartha Gautama" and "Shakyamuni" (Sage of the Shakyas). Malla dynasty was the longest ruling dynasty in Nepalese history, ruling from the 12th century to the 18th century (about 600 years). Nepal Police is the primary law enforcement agency. Politicians were placed under house arrest, phone and internet lines were cut, and freedom of the press was severely curtailed. In 2008, a Constituent Assembly (CA) was established. Nepal declared untouchability to be illegal in 1963 and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives. Nepal is a member of SAARC, UN, WTO, BIMSTEC and ACD, among others. The CPN (UML) and the Nepali Congress negotiated to form a consensus government, and Sushil Koirala of the Nepali Congress was elected as prime minister. Many laws remain unenforced in practice. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British and assisted them during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (and later in both World Wars). Jewellery of gold and silver, and sometimes precious stones, are common. Kathmandu Valley, Pokhara Valley, and the southern Terai regions will vote in … Trump's push to have the election called on Nov. 3 would disregard multiple states' rules that allow ballots to be counted after election night.  Dal-bhat, centred around steamed rice is the most common example. Literary works in many other languages began to be produced. ... (15th Jestha, 2065 BS). The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) established a provisional "people's government" at the district level in several locations. Nepal was then established as a federal republic in May 2008 with the vote against the change of all but four members of the 601-seat in Constituent Assembly.  Of the 21% market share enjoyed by fixed broadband, around 25% was again shared by Nepal Telecom, with the rest going to the private Internet Service Providers. After the fall of the Thakuri dynasty, a new dynasty was founded by Arideva or Ari Malla, known as the 'Malla dynasty'. ] Death penalty has been abolished. The competition for prestige among these brotherly kingdoms saw the flourishing of art and architecture in central Nepal, and the building of famous Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur Durbar Squares; their division and mistrust led to their fall in the late 18th century, and ultimately, unification of Nepal into a modern state. ; буквенный код NPL Федеративная Демократическая Республика Непал (государство в Гималаях, между Индией и Тибетом; до 28 декабря 2007 г. Королевство Непал; столица Катманду) Among the earliest inhabitants were the Kirat of the eastern region, Newars of the Kathmandu Valley, aboriginal Tharus of the Terai plains and the Khas Pahari people of the far-western hills. Nepal also passed more stringent Anti conversion law on 2018.  As communism was trying to find its footing, Nepali Congress was successful in overthrowing the Rana regime in 1951 and enjoyed overwhelming support of the electorate. 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