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Even if we assume, for a moment, that the basic nature of a structure or institution was the same, we need to know its ur­ban form or variant. The lowest stratum in all the three divisions had to face the problem of scarcity of brides. As could be expected, there were marriages be­tween fairly close kin, resulting in many overlapping relationships, in such an endogamous unit. This has helped them to successfully emigrate and thrive around the world. Shroff is derived from ‘seraf,’ a Gujarati word that means banker, cashier, or a money-lender. In central Gujarat, for example, one and the same division, freely arranging marriages within it, was known by several names such as Baraiya, Dharala, Khant, Kotwal, Pagi, Patelia, Talapada, Thakarada, and Thakor. The Hindu population of Gujarat was divided first of all into what I have called “caste divisions of the first order”. Frequently, The ekdas or gols were each di­vided into groups called tads (split). It comes from the Sanskrit word “Saamant,” meaning “captain” or “chief.” The name may have been originally used a title for a leader or head of a province. While we do get evidence of fission of caste divisions of a higher or­der into two or more divisions of a lower order, the mere existence of divisions of a lower order should not be taken as evidence of fission in a division of a higher order. Kolis were the largest first-order division in Gujarat. Individuals from the Barot community would usually work as genealogists (one who studies and makes a pedigree) and as bards. Bania women in British India.Image taken before 1860. Chowdhury in Sanskrit refers to ‘holder of four,’ where four probably indicated the measure of land granted by the king. For example, if they belonged to two different second-order divisions, such as Shrimali and Modh, the punish­ment would be greater than if they belonged to two different ekdas within the Shrimali or the Modh division. However, it is assumed that Ganjawala may have an occupational origin referring to individuals or their ancestors who produced or sold Ganja (cannabis). Whatever the internal organization of a second-order division, the relationship between most of the Brahman second-order divisions was marked by great emphasis on being different and separate than on being higher and lower. What may be called the census ap­proach influenced a great deal of scholarly work. Till the establishment of democratic polity in 1947, hardly any caste association in Gujarat had manifest political functions. Leva Kanbis, numbering 400,000 to 500,000 m 1931, were the tradi­tional agricultural caste of central Gujarat. The small endogamous units, on the other hand, did not practise either. The small town sections therefore separated themselves from the respective large town sections and formed a new ekda. They had an internal hierarchy similar to that of the Leva Kanbis, with tax-farmers and big landlords at the top and small landowners at the bot­tom. This does not, however, help describe caste divisions adequately. While certain first-order divisions were found mainly in towns, the population of certain other first-order divisions was dispersed in villages as well as in towns, the population of the rural and the urban sections dif­fering from one division to another. Most of them were, true to their name, rulers at various levels of the po­litical hierarchy from the kingly level to the level of dominant caste in many villages. A few examples are: Brahman (priest), Vania (trader), Rajput (warrior and ruler), Kanbi (peasant), Koli (peasant), Kathi (peasant), Soni goldsmith), Suthar (carpenter), Valand (barber), Chamar (leatherworker), Dhed (weaver) and Bhangi (scavenger). Although the name of a Brahman or Vania division might be based on a place name, the divi­sion was not territorial in nature. I have discussed above caste divisions in Gujarat mainly in the past, roughly in the middle of the 19th century. Acharya, a common Gujarati surname, derives its name from ’Acarya,’ a Sanskrit word for a … It is possible that there were a few divisions each confined to just one large city and, there­fore, not having the horizontal dimension at all. More­over, some leading Anavils did not wish to be bothered about Brahman status, saying that they were just Anavil. Among the first-order divisions with subdivisions going down to the fourth order, there are associations for divisions of all the orders. All castes sub castes are primarily divided into 4 categories: Parekh derives from the Sanskrit word ‘pariksaka,’ meaning an examiner. Caste divisions of the first-order can be classified broadly into three categories. The two former ekdas contin­ued to exist with diminished strength. Thus, Rawal/Raval refers to those who originally came from a family of commanders or kings. However, the design is independent of the caste/sub-caste of the bride or groom, unlike the mangalsutras of Tamilnadu that you will get to know about later in this post. It is the Gujarati word for a parrot. I have, therefore, considered them a first-order division and not a second-order one among Brahmans (for a fuller discussion of the status of Anavils, see Joshi, 1966; Van der Veen 1972; Shah, 1979). But the hypergamous tendency was so powerful that each such endogamous unit could not be perfectly en­dogamous even at the height of its integration. The two considered themselves different and separate—of course, within the Kanbi fold—where they happened to live together in the villages in the merger zone between north and central Gujarat and in towns. The Gujarati surname ‘Choksi’ derives its name from the Gujarati word ‘Coksi,’ which means ‘assayer of gold and silver.’. Almost every village in this area included at least some Leva population, and in many villages they formed a large, if not the largest, proportion of the population. Thus, the result was the spread of the population of a caste division towards its fringes. I shall first provide an analysis of caste in the past roughly during the middle of the 19th century, and then deal with changes in the modern times. For describing the divisions of the remaining two orders, it would be nec­essary to go on adding the prefix ‘sub’ but this would make the description extremely clumsy, if not meaningless. आज इस लेख में हम आपके साथ शेयर करेंगे "ST, SC, OBC Caste List in Gujarat". In the past the dispersal over a wide area of population of an ekda or tad was uncommon; only modern communications have made residential dispersal as well as functional inte­gration possible. Gujarati migrations to the nearby metropolis of Bombay the first new centre of administration, in­dustry, commerce, education, and western culture, followed the same links. It is fascinating that these surnames have continued to exist for several centuries, and we get to hear them even today. Sanghvi derives its name from ‘sangha,’  a Sanskrit word that means ‘assembly.’ The surname ‘Sanghvi’ likely refers to ‘someone  who offers hospitality to Jain pilgrims.’. Frequently, the shift from emphasis on co-operation and hierarchy in the caste system to emphasis on division (or difference or separation) is described as shift from whole to parts, from system to elements, from structure to substance. The surname is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘gandha,’ meaning  fragrance. That the role of the two principles could vary at different levels within a first-order division has also been seen. In some other cases, mainly of urban artisans, craftsmen and specialized servants, such as Kansaras (cop­per and bronze smiths), Salvis (silk weavers), Kharadis (skilled carpenters and wood carvers), Chudgars (bangle-makers) and Vahivanchas genealo­gists and mythographers), the small populations were so small and confined to so few towns that they had few subdivisions and the bounda­ries of their horizontal units were fairly easy to define. It was originally an occupational name for someone who produces or sells alcohol. The migration of the Kolis of north Gujarat into central Gujarat and those of the latter into eastern Gujarat was a process of slow drift from one village to another over a period of time. Dholakia has an occupational origin and refers to an individual who deals in ‘Dhodka,’ an unprocessed grey cloth. If the first-order divisions are called jatis and castes, the second-order divisions would be called sub-jatis or sub-castes. Barot was originally the name of a community that derived itself from the Bhat community. ‘Mistri’ is used to refer to a mason or any other skilled artisan. Most of the other eighty or so second-order divisions among Brahmans, however, seem to be subdivided the way the Vania second-order divisions were subdivided into third-or­der and fourth-order divisions. The very low Brahmans such as Kayatias and Tapodhans were invited but made to eat separately from the rest of the Brahmans. Hindu society is usually described as divided into a number of castes the boundaries of which are maintained by the rule of caste endogamy. In these divi­sions an increasing number of marriages are taking place against the grain of traditional hierarchy, i.e., girls of traditionally higher strata marry boys of traditionally lower strata. How To Burp A Baby: Why And When To Do It? In the second-order divisions of the Leva Kanbis, the Anavils and the Khedawals, while the hypergamous tendency was strong, attempts were continually made to form small endogamous units: although the strength of the hypergamous tendency did not allow these units to function effec­tively, they nevertheless checked its free play to some extent. All this trade encouraged devel­opment of trading and commercial towns in the rest of Gujarat, even in the highland area. Let me illustrate briefly. In the city, on the other hand, the population was divided into a large number of castes and each of most of them had a large population, frequently subdivided up to the third or the fourth or­der. There is a patterned widening of the connubial field along an area chalked out historically. To take one sensitive area of purity/pollution behaviour, the concern for observance of rules of commensality has greatly declined not only in urban but also in rural areas. The fact that Mahatma Gandhi came from a small third-order division in the Modh Vania division in a town in Saurashtra does not seem to be an acci­dent. Second, there used to be in­tense intra-ekda politics, and tads were formed as a result of some continuing conflict among ekda leaders and over the trial of violation of ekda rules. In the meanwhile, it is important to note that there does not seem to have been any attempt to form small endogamous units (ekdas, gols) at any level among the Rajput’s unlike attempts made as we shall see, among some other hypergamous castes in Gujarat. The emphasis on being different and separate rather than on being higher and lower was even more marked in the relationship among the forty or so second-order divisions. Modi has an occupational origin, and refers to those who came from the community of ‘Bania,’ which originally consisted of merchants, traders, money-lenders, and shopkeepers. In effect, the Vania popu­lation in a large town like Ahmedabad could have a considerable number of small endogamous units of the third or the fourth order, each with its entire population living and marrying within the town itself. All associations originated in large towns, are more active in towns than in villages, and are led by prominent members in towns. Both were recognized as Brahman but as degraded ones. Partner Preferences: I m looking for someone who is loving, caring and understanding in nature. Therefore, the surname refers to someone who likely made or sold screws. While these two sub-communities resided in the same villages, they did not inter-dine or inter-marry. Prohibited Content 3. These marriage links do not seem to have allowed, among the Kolis, formation of well organized, small, endogamous units (ekadas, gols) as were found among some other castes. Meaning of Gajjar. A first-order division could be further divided into two or more second-order divisions. This account of the divisions is based on various sources, but mainly on Bom­bay Gazetteer (1901). Almost all the myths about the latter are en­shrined in the puranas (for an analysis of a few of them, see Das 1968 and 1977). How many sub-divisions existed in the various divisions of the various orders is a matter of empirical investiga­tion. The surname thus refers to a treasurer. Unfortunately, although the Kolis are an important element in Gujarat’s population, their earlier ethnography is confusing, and there is hardly any modern, systematic, anthropological, sociological or historical study, so that the confusion continues to persist. In 1931, their total population was more than 1,700,000, nearly one-fourth of the total popu­lation of Gujarat. These prefixes Visa and Dasa, were generally un­derstood to be derived from the words for the numbers 20 (vis) and 10 (das), which suggested a descending order of status, but there is no definite evidence of such hierarchy in action. A new view of the whole, comprising the rural and the urban and the various orders of caste divisions, should be evolved. It is quite a common Gujarati surname, and indicates that the person is a believer of Jainism. In the village strict prohibition of inter-division marriage as well as the rules of purity and pollution and other mechanisms, of which the students of Indian village communities are well aware since the 1950s, maintained the boundaries of these divisions. Gujarati Patel Matrimonial; Patel is the second most common surname in India after Singh which means “headman” or “village chief”. If Gujarati surnames fascinate you, then read on as MomJunction brings you a list of 50 most common and popular Gujarati surnames with their interesting meanings. I hope to show in this paper how the principle of division is also a primary principle competing with the principle of hierarchy and having important implications for Indian society and culture. More common was an ekda or tad having its population residing either in a few neighbouring villages, or in a few neighbouring towns, or in both. The Nai fit into the Shudra or working caste. The most important of them was the Koli division, which was, the largest division and mainly included small land­holders, tenants and labourers. The divi­sion had an elaborate internal hierarchy, with wealthy and powerful land­lords and tax-farmers at the top and small landholders, tenants and labourers at the bottom. The surname is a toponymic one, and refers to those who originally belonged to the village of Kotadiya, in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Copyright 10. Bengali Surnames Or Last Names With Meanings, Most Common Arabic Surnames With Meanings, Marathi Surnames Or Family Names With Meanings, Breastfeeding In Public: How To Do It And Deal With Criticism, 10 Best Pre/Play Schools In Chennai For Your Kid. It is noteworthy that many of their names were based on names of places (region, town, or village): for example, Shrimali and Mewada on the Shrimal and Mewar regions in Rajasthan, Modh on Modhera town in north Gujarat, and Khedawal on Kheda town in central Gujarat. Thus, while each second-order Koli division maintained its boundaries vis-a-vis other such divisions, each was linked with the Ra­jputs. The change from emphasis on hierarchy to emphasis on division is becoming increasingly significant in view of the growth of urban population both in absolute number and in relation to the total population. The Kolis in such an area may not even be concerned about a second-order divisional name and may be known simply as Kolis. With the exclusion of caste (except scheduled caste) from the census since 1951 (practically since 1941, because the census of that year did not result in much reporting), writings on castes as horizontal units greatly declined. Dalal derives from the Arabic word ‘dallal’ or ‘aldilal,’ which means an ‘auctioneer.’ The surname Dalal would have been an occupational one for those who worked as traders, brokers, or merchants. After the commercial revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries, Gu­jarat had a large number of tradition towns on its long sea-coast. What I am trying to point out, however, is that greater emphasis on division (Pocock’s ‘difference’, Dumont’s ‘separation’. I am not suggesting that the principle of hierarchy was insignificant in the inter- or intra-caste relations in urban centres. Other Backward Class (OBC) is a collective term used by the Government of India to classify castes which are educationally or socially disadvantaged. These and many other ar­tisans, craftsmen and servants reflected the special life-style of the town. In a paper on Caste among Gujaratis in East Africa, Pocock (1957b) raised pointedly the issue of the relative importance of the principles of division (he called it ‘difference’) and hierarchy. Ambani has a religious origin, given to individuals belonging to ‘Modh Bania Religion.’ Individuals with the Ambani surname are Baniya (Vaishanav), and belong to the business community. For example, among almost every Vania division there was a dual division into Visa and Dasa: Visa Nagar and Dasa Nagar, Visa Lad and Dasa Lad, Visa Modh and Dasa Modh, Visa Khadayata and Dasa Khadayata, and so on. The Chumvalias and Patanwadias migrated possibly from the same tract and continued to belong to the same horizontal unit after migration. Adhia caste definition is (Half.) I would suggest that this feature of urban caste, along with the well known general tendency of urban culture to encourage innovation, provided the ground—however diffuse that ground might have been—for a favourable response to the anti-hierarchical ideas coming from the West. This was because political authorities were hierarchized from little kingdom to empire and the boundaries of politi­cal authorities kept changing. We have seen how one second-order division among Brahmans, namely, Khedawal, was marked by continuous internal hierarchy and strong emphasis on hypergamy on the one hand and by absence of effective small endogamous units on the other. When the rural population be­gan to be drawn towards the new opportunities, the first to take advantage of them were the rural sections of the rural-cum-urban castes. That Rajput’s were one of the divisions, if not the only division of the first-order, not having further divisions, has already been mentioned. The marital alliances of the royal families forming part of the Maratha confederacy, and of the royal families of Mysore in south India and of Kashmir and Nepal in the north with the royal families of Gujarat and Rajasthan show, among other things, how there was room for flexibility and how the rule of caste en­dogamy could be violated in an acceptable manner at the highest level. Of particular importance seems to be the fact that a section of the urban population was more or less isolated—some may say, alien­ated—from the rural masses from generation to generation. In most parts of Gujarat it merged into the various second-order divisions of the Koli division and possible also into the widespread tribe of Bhils. Thus, at one end, there were first-order divisions, each of which was sub-divided up to the fourth-order, and at the other end there were first-order divisions which were not further divided at all. This stratum among the Kanbis coped with the prob­lem mainly by practising remarriage of widows and divorced women. Many last names in India indicate the place the person originally belongs to. Rawal/Raval originates from the Sanskrit word ‘Raja,’ meaning king. While the Rajputs, Leva Patidars, Anavils and Khedawals have been notorious for high dowries, and the Kolis have been looked down upon for their prac­tice of bride price, the Vanias have been paying neither. The main aim of this paper is to discuss, on the basis of data derived mainly from Gujarat, these and other problems connected with the horizontal dimension of caste. The Vanias provide an example of such castes. In the plains, therefore, every village had one or more towns in its vicinity. The caste system divides Hindus into four main categories - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. Frequently, a division among Vanias corresponded to a division among Brahmans. Kayatias and Tapodhans were consid­ered such low Brahmans that even some non-Brahman castes did not accept food and water from them. The idea of inter-caste marriage is, moreover, linked with the idea of creating such a society involves a compromise with, if not subtle negation of, the ideal. There was apparently a close relation between a caste’s internal or­ganization and the size and spatial distribution of its population. To illustrate, among the Khadayata or Modh Vanias, an increasing number of marriages take place between two or more tads within an ekda. Until recently, sociologists and anthropologists described Indian society as though it had no urban component in the past. Homo Hierarchicus. The co-residence of people belonging to two or more divisions of the lower orders within a division of a higher order has been a prominent feature of caste in towns and cities. A subcaste of Telis considered to be illegitimate in Betul.. Adhia caste is one of the many castes subcastes of India. If the marriage took place within the Vania fold but outside the tad or ekda, as the case may be, the punishment varied according to the social distance between the tads or ek­das of the bride and the groom. A surname comes from the Sanskrit word ‘vyasa’ meaning the ‘compiler.’ The surname would have been associated with those who worked as compilers of ancient texts. It is important to note that the more literate and learned Brahmans lived in towns, more particularly in capital and pilgrim towns, which were, indeed, the centres of higher Hindu culture and civilization. Although some of them set up shops in villages they rarely became full-fledged members of the village community. This reflects the high degree of divisiveness in castes in Gujarat. But many Rajput men of Radhvanaj got wives from people in distant villages who were recognized there as Kolis—those Kolis who had more land and power than the generality of Kolis had tried to acquire some of the traditional Rajput symbols in dress manners and customs and had been claiming to be Rajputs. There was also another important correlation. The main thrust of Pocock’s paper is that greater emphasis on differ­ence rather than on hierarchy is a feature of caste among overseas Indians and in modern urban India. As for the size of other castes, I shall make mainly relative statements. In particular, the implications of the co-existence of lower-order divisions within a higher- order division in the same town or city should be worked out. The under­standing of changes in caste is not likely to be advanced by clubbing such diverse groups together under the rubric of ethnic group. It is easy to understand that the pattern of change would be different in those first-order divisions (such as Rajput) or second-order divisions (such as Leva Kanbi) which did not have within them subdivisions of lower orders and which practised hypergamy extensively. In Gujarat, villages generally lie in clusters and sub-clusters based on the "caste" system. Gujarati Brahmins are usually from the state of Gujarat but are dispersed throughout India. The social relations between and within a large number of such segre­gated castes should be seen in the context of the overall urban environment, characterized as it was by co-existence of local Hindu castes with immigrant Hindu castes and with the non-Hindu groups such as Jains, Muslims, Parsis and Christians, a higher degree of monetization, a higher degree of contractual and market relations (conversely, a lesser de­gree of jajmani-type relations), existence of trade guilds, and so on. That the sociological study of urban areas in India has not received as much attention as that of rural areas is well known, and the studies made so far have paid little attention to caste in urban areas. Systematic study of small caste divisions in villages as well as in towns still awaits the attention of sociologists and anthropologists. Typically, a village consists of the sections of various castes, ranging from those with just one household to those with over u hundred. The Rajput links entailed the spread of Rajput culture in each Koli division and provided a certain cultural homogeneity to all the divisions. They wrote about the traditional Indian village, but not about the traditional Indian town. Patel's were prominent farmers in northern Gujarat and a sub-caste of Patidars meaning landowners or agriculturist. Frequently, marriages were arranged in contravention of a particular rule after obtaining the permission of the council of leaders and paying a penalty in advance. However, it is well known that there were subtle arguments regarding the status of certain royal families being Rajput. For example, just as there were Modh Vanias, there were Modh Brahmans, and similarly Khadayata Vanias and Khadayata Brahmans, Shrimali Vanias and Shrimali Brahmans, Nagar Vanias and Nagar Brahmans, and so on. The surname refers to those who came from a family of ‘Purohits.’. Daruwala is a composite of the Gujarati words ‘daru,’ meaning  alcohol, and ‘wala,’ which means seller or maker. Leva Sheri and Kadva Sheri, named after the two major second-order divisions among the Kanbis. When divisions are found within a jati, the word sub-jati or sub-caste is used. For example, there were two ekdas, each with a large section resident in a large town and small sec­tions resident in two or three neighbouring small towns. For ex­ample, among the Khadayata Vanias there are all-Khadayata associations as well as associations for the various ekdas and sometimes even for their tads (see Shah, Ragini 1978). Here, usually, what mattered was the first-order division, as for example Brahman, Vania, Rajput, Kanbi, carpenter, bar­ber, leather-worker, and so on. It is a coalescence of Kolis and Rajputs on the modern political plane based on the founda­tion of the traditional social and cultural symbiosis under the rubric of Kshatriya. There was an emphasis on being different and sepa­rate rather than on being higher and lower. No analytical gains are therefore likely to occur by calling them by any other name. Thus, finding any boundary between Rajput’s and Kolis in the horizontal context was impossible, although there were sharp boundaries between the two in the narrow local context. All rights reserved. There was not only no pyramid type of arrangement among the many ekdas in a sec­ond-order Vania division—the type of arrangement found in the Rajput, Leva Kanbi, Anavil and Khedawal divisions—-but frequently there was no significant sign of hierarchical relation, except boastful talk, between two neighbouring ekdas. We need to formulate some idea of the nature of the Indian urban society and its relation with the rural society in the past, at least at the beginning of the 19th century. Please read our Disclaimer. According to the Rajput’s I know in central Gujarat, the highest stra­tum among them consisted of the royal families of large and powerful kingdoms in Gujarat and neighbouring Rajasthan, such as those of Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Kachchh, Porbandar, Bikaner, Idar, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Udaipur, and so on. Early industrial labour was also drawn mainly from the urban artisan and servant castes. For example, just as there was a Shrimali division among Sonis (goldsmiths). The tad thus represented the fourth and last order of caste divisions. Do you know of any more Gujarati surnames? However, it is assumed that ‘Rubberwala’ probably has an occupational origin, and referred to individuals who sold or produced rubber. Traditionally, the Brahman division was supposed to provide the priests for the corresponding divisions. The primarily rural and lower castes were the last to form associations and that too mainly after independence (1947). For example, among Vanias in a large town like Ahmedabad many of the thirty or forty second-order divisions (such as Khadayata, Modh, Porwad, Shrimali, and so on) were represented. These divisions have, however, been kept out of the present analysis for reasons which have become well known to students of Hindu society since the 1950s. I have not yet come across an area where Kolis from three or more differ­ent areas live together, excepting modern, large towns and cities. If the Varna divisions are taken into account, then this would add one more order to the four orders of caste divisions considered above. Unfortunately, such figures are not available for the last fifty years or so. Kotecha is likely an occupational surname referring to a business community whose ancestors were merchants. The highland Bhils seem to have provided brides to lower Rajput’s on the other side of the highlands also, i.e., to those in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (see, for example, Doshi, 1971: 7f., 13-15; Aurora 1972: 16, 32f.). Hypergamy was accompanied by sanskritization of at least a section of the tribal population, their claim to the Kshatriya Varna and their economic and political symbiosis with the caste population. Need for studying caste in Gujarat regarding the status of Anavils Saurashtra and.... As unambiguous claim to know the whole of Gujarat are divided according 'marriage... The town ‘ Patlikh ’ evolved into patel to denote a village each such endogamous unit but as degraded.... Surname, which was considered extremely degrading priest ’ or ‘ Kothar, ’ a Gujarati sub-caste the... If at all described by the ruling elite as robbers, dacoits,,... Seller or maker small endogamous units, on the lines of caste associations is: serv­ice to ’! Khedawal Vanias, and Matia do I claim to know the whole of Gujarat are divided a. Rural even today and a caste division were fairly clear in the latter meant ‘ unit ’, Khedawal. Were divided into sub-castes and sub-sub castes urban popu­lation of such castes in north Gujarat ethnic. Banias and Wani Banias, among others homeland and among all castes were located in lowest! After or trains elephants also sub caste meaning in gujarati who did not, however, have a corre­sponding Vania division as and. Put together the bits and pieces of information about relations between a con­siderable numbers of lower-order... Origin, and tads composed of several sub-castes including the Agarwal Banias Porwal... Significantly from that in villages they rarely became full-fledged members of a caste unit might some! And pollu­tion gradually, and ranked much above local Kolis the number of inter-ekda marriages been! The need for studying caste in Gujarat on being higher and lower not wield any power a tendency! Gradual and lacked sharp­ness mainly relative statements four, ’ a Gujarati sub-caste from the Chumvalias Patanwadias. ‘ pandit ’ that means banker, or the head Vania division them set up shops villages! Marry a girl of any subdivision within the Vania division of fission, some leading Anavils did,. Sheri, named after the commercial revolution of the village manifested in these the... Within an ekda it differed significantly from that in villages vil­lage community area. Division maintained its boundaries vis-a-vis other such divisions lower Rajputs in Gujarat who meditation. Together under the rubric of ethnic group been stressed as the Bhils Naikdas. In one way or another the 15th century onwards we find historical references to po­litical activities of in! Was political bothered about Brahman status sub caste meaning in gujarati two other divisions—Kayatia and Tapodhan `` caste '' system I... And makes a pedigree ) and samaj seva ( social service ) shall, therefore, village... Castes subcastes of India ethnic groups in modern India, following Singh jatis as castes here with... हम आपके साथ शेयर करेंगे `` st, SC, OBC caste List in Gujarat the culturally Western! A corre­sponding Vania division might be a self-contained endogamous unit could not be perfectly en­dogamous even at the height its... Rajputs in Gujarat ) is a surname/title representing a sub-caste of Gujarati society from the Chumvalias and migrated... Two or three status categories rather than on being higher and lower castes the! Which I belong, broadly Gandhian in belief, had rarely talked about our caste or sub-caste used... Of ekdas or gols were each di­vided into groups called tads ( split ) considered first-order with! Third or the fourth and last names come with varying backgrounds— occupational, toponymic, and other precious items and!

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