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3 DEFINITIONS & INDICATORS We recognise that extremism is defined as the holding of extreme political or religious views. The four modules are made up of a mixture of narrative videos, interactive quizzes and e-learning content. A Metropolitan police fact file including what is and is not defined as terrorism, and links to contact the Met. Butler, J. We also regard calls for the death of members of our armed forces as extremist.”. We also regard calls for … A market is emerging around extremism awareness training, as illustrated in the Home Office Prevent: Training Manual. We also regard calls for … guidance, are subject to a duty under section 26 of the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 (the TSA 2015 _), in the exercise of their functions, to have ^due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism _ 2.8.2 This duty is known as the Prevent duty. The Prevent duty became law back in 2015. Has intervention ever stopped a young person being radicalised? revent-duty-departmental-advice-v6.pdf# and recognises that its responsibilities to prevent and protect children from extremism, fits within its duty of child protection and safeguarding. deconstruct the concept of violent extremism or deny its usefulness. Rather than excluding universities from the provisions of the Act and granting them special exception, the presence of PREVENT within our universities has forced us to grapple with the meaning of freedom the rest of the country is facing, and to think hard about how to preserve those freedoms that belong to every citizen. Nabulsi draws on Frantz Fanon to argue that by learning to see ‘through the gaze of the least favoured’, we can rework our PREVENT risk assessments and action plans so that they protect our rights and freedoms under existing legislation, and challenge unconscious biases. Violent events in nature (tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions) can be contrasted with animal violence (lions attacking a prey) and human violence, starting with the simple example of bullying, with which pupils will be familiar… Under the 2011 PREVENT Strategy, and reproduced within the government’s PREVENT duty guidelines, extremism is defined as ‘vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs…’ The guidelines, and advice note issued by HEFCE are replete with the language of extremism and … [3] The case is currently before the courts, with judgement due shortly. Under the 2011 PREVENT Strategy, and reproduced within the government’s PREVENT duty guidelines, extremism is defined as ‘vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs…’ The guidelines, and advice note issued by HEFCE are replete with the language of extremism and radicalisation; here, extreme ‘ideology’ — not political or socio-economic factors — must be understood as the cause of terrorist activities, and hence silenced and curtailed. As I argued in a previous blog post, Muslims’ supposed ‘difference’ has been at the forefront of debates around the failures of multiculturalism, which call for greater social cohesion, and a stronger sense of Britishness. Prevent Duty Guidance. What should I consider about hosting external speakers in my school? In order to protect children in your care, you must be alert to any reason for concern in the child’s life at home or elsewhere. Last year, two lecturers from the University of Southampton sought to organise a conference on international law and the state of Israel. We have a duty to safeguarding pupils/students from potentially harmful and inappropriate ... We recognise that extremism is defined as the holding of extreme political or religious views. Extremism and Radicalisation Prevent responds to the ideological challenges which can occur as a result of extremism and radicalism, reducing the threat of terrorism from those who pose such views. What practical things should I do to ensure my school complies with its responsibility under the Prevent duty? Governors and board members are expected to set the Prevent strategy for the institution and to ensure that the institution’s strategy complies with the Prevent Duty as set out in the Counter Terrorism and Security Act 2015.. Governors are expected to scrutinise the practice in the institution including a Preventing Extremism risk assessment. For more information see this link. The Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 contains a duty on specified authorities to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. Prevent is about safeguarding and supporting those vulnerable to radicalisation. In line with the 2011 amendments to the Strategy, the Act compels these authorities to implement measures to deal with the risk of radicalisation, and to tackle ‘all forms of terrorism’ and ‘non-violent extremism’. The government has defined extremism in the Prevent Duty as: “vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs.” This also includes calls for the death of members of the British armed forces. Under the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 we have a duty to refer any concerns of extremism to the police (In Prevent priority areas the local authority will have a Prevent lead who can also provide support). For any questions or comments about the website or any of its content, please contact us. Speaking the language of extremism is also becoming profitable. https://learning.nspcc.org.uk/safeguarding-child-protection/radicalisation In an unprecedented move, local government authorities, the health sector, prisons, schools and universities have been required to take ‘due regard to the need to prevent people form being drawn into terrorism’ (section 26(1)). You can also read our Privacy Policy and Terms and Conditions. The university withdrew permission to hold the conference, citing security concerns. However, some groups pose particular threats, both online and offline. For full details see here. When efforts were made to host it this year the university prevented it from occurring by charging the organiser more than £20k to cover security costs.[3]. A Steering Group has been set up, but aside from a Statement on Academic Freedom produced by the Department of Politics and International Relations, most institutes and departments have not discussed the issue, and have received very limited information about these statutory duties that are due to come into effect in the next few months. Email: counter.extremism@education.gsi.gov.uk. Since the 2011 Prevent Strategy the government has defined “extremism” as “vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values.” The government has described 4 key “fundamental British Values” – “democracy”, “the rule … Since September 2015, the Prevent duty, issued under the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act, places universities and colleges in the UK under a legal obligation to engage with the Prevent … We should also, I would suggest, work to make PREVENT visible across the university. Much like the Immigration Bill of 2015-16, legislation has become ever more intrusive, inserting itself deeper into the ordinary lives of law-abiding citizens. Following publication of the Prevent Strategy , there has been an increased awareness of the specific need to safeguard children, young people and families from violent extremism. This Extremism and Radicalisation Policy is intended to provide us with a framework ... undertake our duties under Prevent. The Counter Extremism Strategy 2015 says: “Extremism is the vocal or active opposition to our fundamental values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty, and respect and tolerance for different faiths and beliefs. Non-violent extremism and British values. Both pose a threat to students but they have very distinct definitions. Helping to build resilience against extremist views, Involves serious violence against a person, Creates a serious risk to the public’s health and safety, Interferes with or seriously disrupts an electronic system. It includes specific reference to preventing radicalisation on page 82 and advice on online safety at Annex C. A downloadable booklet for teachers about how to increase your pupils’ resilience to extremism, produced by Educate Against Hate. For younger pupils, a good entry point is a broad-based discussion of the nature of violence. These procedural rules and practices have unwittingly seeped into our institutions because they effectively tap into broader societal fears and prejudices around Islam, that have become widespread in European societies. That is according to a report by Estyn, which identified that some school leaders do not see radicalisation and extremism as relevant to their school or area.. All schools have a duty to ensure pupils are not radicalised into terrorism. An initial approach to these “sensitive topics” is to take a step back from current preoccupations with Islamist terrorism and from the emotive language and headline slogans surrounding it. The former British Prime Minister, David Cameron, has repeatedly asserted that challenging ‘poisonous extremist’ ideology represents a ‘generational struggle’. What if a member of staff in my school has a concern? What resources are available to help implement the duty? From July 2015 every local authority has a legal duty to "prevent people from being drawn into terrorism". Academics have recently called for the legislation to be repealed, accusing it of undermining trust and openness, eroding civil liberties, and deepening discrimination against Muslims. This is a duty on all schools and registered early years providers to have due regard to preventing people being drawn into terrorism. Prevent in Essex . If someone is suspected of vulnerability to ‘extremism’, under the Prevent duty, they can be referred to ‘Channel’, a home office initiative that assesses people and decides what should be done in the way of ‘counter-radicalisation’. This lack of visibility has effectively curbed discussion around PREVENT and discouraged dissent. 2) 1986) which protects freedom of expression. This includes the infamous definition of “non-violent extremism” used by the government in the past (“vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values…”)—people are under no obligation to use that as a working definition for “extremism”. How Social Media is used to encourage travel to Syria & Iraq. Telephone 020 7340 7264. One of the principal means by which the UK Government has responded to this challenge is with the Prevent Strategy which has the stated ai… Respect for women’s equality has become an instrument of progress (Butler 2008)—a way of identifying, demonising, and reforming some Muslim subjects. Working Remote ... the revised Prevent Duty Guidance defines radicalization as the process by which a person comes ... We also include in our definition of extremism … The Government of the United Kingdom (UK) has stressed that preventing the spread of extremist ideology and stopping acts of terrorism are two of the most pressing and interrelated issues of the 21st century. In the face of this law, we have come to stand united with the rest of the country. What stands out as particularly controversial is the statutory duty introduced in 2015 that requires ‘specified authorities’ to “have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism” (Home Office, 2015a, s. 26). Across many UK universities compliance has taken the form of amending existing policies, rather than presenting them as a coherent package. The threat it poses to freedom of expression and academic freedom has unsurprisingly caused discomfort and concern within the Higher Education sector. While the guidelines are meant to tackle all forms of extremism related to terrorist activities, including the far-right, Islam or Muslims are the most obvious targets. While this diffused process of implementation has been motivated by a reluctance to cause unnecessary alarm, it has also meant that there has been little transparency among staff. Some schools are missing the opportunity to address extremism, due to a minority of schools not designating incidents of bullying as racist. Terrorism is an action or threat designed to influence the government or intimidate the public. What should my staff be teaching in class? As part of Prevent Duty, frontline staff have a responsibility to be aware of the meaning of such terminology. We are not responsible for external content linked on this site. Dzenovska, D. (2013) “‘We want to hear from you’ (or how informing works in a liberal democracy)” COMPAS blog, 9th April, Dzenovska, D. (2014) “Notes on power in scenes of denunciation” COMPAS blog, 5th March, Nabulsi, K. (2016) “Fear and Loathing in Luton: The Place of Collective Freedoms in a Democracy” public lecture at the PREVENT: Counter-Terrorism and Freedom, Wadham College, University of Oxford, 25th February. It aims to stop people becoming terrorists or supporting terrorism. It is a vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, [2] Organised and sponsored by Wadham Human Rights Forum, the Department of Politics and International Relations, Oxford, and London Review of Books. It’s important to remember that not all extremist groups, whether Islamist, far-right or other, will commit terrorist or violent acts. While PREVENT introduces completely new policies, some of the monitoring and referral practices are, to some degree, already in place. This statutory guidance from the Department for Education should be read and followed by governing bodies of maintained schools and colleges, proprietors of independent schools (including academies and non-maintained special schools) and the management committees of pupil referral units. UK Police and Partners - Working with mothers to prevent tragedies. Prevent Resources. "Extremism is vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs. This may be a cause for concern relating to a change in behaviour of a child, family Prevent Duty Guidance for England & Wales; ... our duties under Prevent. This is accompanied by a facilitator pack for staff, featuring lesson plans and activities related to the modules. (2008) “Sexual Politics, Torture, and Secular Time.” The British Journal of Sociology 59 (1):1-23. The PREVENT strategy draws on a discourse of national identity, British values, and social cohesion that has been voiced across the political spectrum in recent years. This is also known as the Prevent Duty. DEFINITION Extremism can be defined as “holding of extreme opinions: the holding of extreme political PREVENT monitors and disciplines not only lawful actions, but also political and religious ideas and opinions. Extremism is defined in law as: 'vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance for those with different faiths and beliefs. Yet, across the wider University, compliance with PREVENT has not yet been subject to a comparable, open discussion. Terrorism and extremism are sometimes used interchangeably. PREVENT has been falsely presented as an innocuous nod towards the legislation—part of the ordinary, everyday bureaucratic workings of universities—and hence as requiring few effective and substantial changes. In a public lecture held as part of the Wadham series mentioned above, Professor Karma Nabulsi suggested that we should see the arrival of PREVENT in the academy as creating a more united understanding of its effects. It is not uncommon to hear of disproportionate risk assessments and security costs placed on those who organise politically radical events. Under 30. COMPAS, School of Anthropology, University of Oxford, 58 Banbury Road, Oxford, OX2 6QS, T. +44 (0)1865 274 711 We also include in our definition of extremism calls for the death of members of our armed forces, whether in this country or overseas.' Appeals for a national identity—through notions of ‘British values’— have often been juxtaposed to an abject, illiberal ‘other’; the universal language of ‘liberal’ rights has had the effect of producing difference, and racializing and essentializing Muslims. Radicalisation is defined as the process by which people come to support terrorism and extremism and, in some cases, to then participate in terrorist groups. When the Act was debated in the House of Lords, a number of peers expressed concern that the legislation would undermine existing legislation (e.g. How do we define extremism and terrorism in the UK? This is the Prevent Duty. Initially launched in 2007 and revised in 2011, PREVENT is part of the Government’s counter-terrorism strategy, with new legal obligations arising with the enactment of the Counter-terrorism and Security Act of 2015. The resource consists of four separate e-learning modules focused on the themes of extremism, radicalisation and British values. Instead, the objective will be to develop a definition which touches on key aspects of the violent extremism phenomenon, while also delineating the trend vis-à-vis other concepts such as radicalisation and terrorism. It has become disturbingly common to hear of Muslim students struggling to book rooms for Islam-related events, or of being referred to PREVENT coordinators for taking part in pro-Palestine protests, or at events which question UK foreign policy. The Counter Extremism Strategy 2015 says: “Extremism is the vocal or active opposition to our fundamental values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty, and respect and tolerance for different faiths and beliefs. The Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 contains a duty on specified authorities to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. Schools and colleges must have regard to this guidance when carrying out their duties to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Courses and videos are now available online, and experts run workshops and modules for a fee on anything from ‘how to spot extremist ideas and behaviours’ to  ‘warning signs of radicalisation.’ The language of extremism and radicalisation has become so commonplace that many have come to accept Muslim ‘difference’ as the cause of a number of societal problems ranging from a lack of social cohesion to violence and terrorism. Terrorism is defined by the Terrorism Act 2000; in brief, it means action, or threat of We have a duty to safeguarding pupils/students from potentially harmful and ... We recognise that extremism is defined as the holding of extreme political or Extremism – and therefore counter-extremism – will always be ‘pre-crime’, always be grounded in the political and therefore always inherently tied … As we have seen elsewhere, gender inequality (and gender segregation at university events) is often presented as a sign of Muslims’ incompatibility and disdain for British liberal values, and hence of their extremist views. In the UK we define terrorism as a violent action that: But how does terrorism differ from extremism? Its purpose is to advance a political, religious or ideological cause. Over the last year, universities across the country have been working on the implementation of PREVENT. Find more information about how schools prevent extremism and safeguard young people via Counter Extremism LGFL. The current UK definition of terrorism is given in the Terrorism Act 2006. Under Section 26 schools must, in the exercise of their functions, have 'due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism'. In Oxford, discussion and debate around PREVENT has so far centred on the Colleges. This can be seen as part of a growing trend within the UK and across liberal democracies more broadly, that tasks ordinary citizens to govern foreign or marginalised others through what Dace Dzenovska (2013; 2014) has described as acts of ‘denunciation’. In March 2015, Parliament approved guidance issued under section 29 of the act about how specified authorities are to follow the Prevent Duty. Prevent 'DOABM' - Lesson Plan. Prevent Duty Guidance for England & Wales; ... duties under Prevent. Prevent is 1 of the 4 elements of CONTEST, the Government’s counter-terrorism strategy. We also include in our definition of extremism calls for the death of members of our armed forces, whether in this country or overseas” (HM Government Prevent Strategy 2011). • There is no such thing in reality as a “Prevent duty”. And we can develop a response alongside schools and other public bodies that not only challenges the legislation, but also destabilises the ways we have come to understand Islam in Britain today. The Counter Extremism Strategy 2015 says: “Extremism is the vocal or active opposition to our fundamental values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty, and respect and tolerance for different faiths and beliefs. The language of extremism and radicalisation is an extension of these debates. We can begin by unpacking the politicised language of extremism used in the legislation and accompanying guidelines, and challenging the ways in which it is spilling into our training manuals, welfare support, IT filtering procedures, and policies on events and conferences. There are also video interviews with talking heads and FE students and animations. What is Extremism? What are my school’s responsibilities under the Prevent duty? [1] Oxford’s 38 colleges and 6 Permanent Private Halls are independent, self-governing academic communities, and for the purposes of PREVENT are required to respond to the legislation separately from the University. The Prevent duty - Guidance for specified authorities. E. info@compas.ox.ac.uk, Privacy | Terms & Conditions | Copyrights | Accessibility, ©2020 University of OxfordManaged by REDBOT, ‘We want to hear from you’ (or how informing works in a liberal democracy), Fear and Loathing in Luton: The Place of Collective Freedoms in a Democracy. [1] A forum discussion entitled ‘PREVENT: Counter-Terrorism and Freedom’ was held at Wadham College [2] earlier this year, and the Conference of Colleges—which brings together colleges in collective decision-making processes—has been seeking expert advice, input from college’s Governing Bodies, and debating the content of the risk assessments and action plans which are due to be submitted to HEFCE (the Higher Education Funding Council for England), the PREVENT monitoring body, later this summer. An interactive resource designed for Further Education students to build resilience to radicalisation. Participants need to sign up and login to access resources so progress can be tracked. The guidelines suggest adopting policies for the use of prayer rooms and faith-related facilities, and higher education institutions are told to pay regard to their ‘responsibilities in relation to gender segregation’. The Education Act, (no. 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