indonesian occupation of east timor

However, factionalism continued and the resistance remained divided with some of the parties disengaging themselves from CNT (Soares 2000:60). [51], Though the Indonesian military advanced into East Timor, most of the populations left the invaded towns and villages in coastal areas for the mountainous interior. UDT members killed a dozen Fretilin members in four locations. The Fretilin armed wing, called Falintil, was made up of rough men with wild hair and mismatched uniforms and armed with old Portuguese weapons, outdated M-14s, spears, bows and arrows, machetes and knives. [82] While the US government claimed to have suspended new arms sales to Indonesia from December 1975 to June 1976, military equipment already in the pipeline continued to flow,[7] and the US made four new offers of arms during that six-month period, including supplies and parts for 16 OV-10 Broncos,[7] which, according to Cornell University Professor Benedict Anderson, are "specially designed for counter-insurgency actions against adversaries without effective anti-aircraft weapons and wholly useless for defending Indonesia against a foreign enemy." [61], The 1975–1978 period, from the beginning of the invasion to the largely successful conclusion of the encirclement and annihilation campaign, proved to be the toughest period of the entire conflict, costing the Indonesians more than 1,000 fatalities out of the total of 2,000 who died during the entire occupation. The proclaimed attempt to win the hearts and minds of the East Timorese had not only met with no success, but had earned the Indonesians the bitter and undying hatred of the East Timorese, even among the youth who were born well after the invasion. These ideological and material programs were strategies to quell Coat of arms of Timor Timur.svg 600 × 600; 62 KB. But as the days and weeks evolved there was tremendous pressure from the Timorese university students in Portugal, who were all Maoist.. By September 1974 we changed into Fretilin-Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor . [16] The last two decades of the century saw continuous clashes between Indonesian and East Timorese groups over the status of East Timor, until 1999, when a majority of East Timorese voted overwhelmingly for independence (the alternative option being "special autonomy" while remaining part of Indonesia). You name it; they got it. In October 1996 the continued diplomatic efforts to attract international attention to atrocities in East Timor are recognized by the Nobel Peace Prize which was awarded to José Ramos-Horta and Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo. 8 “Encirclement and Annihilation”: The Indonesian Occupation of East Timor, "Indonesian casualties in East Timor, 1975–1999: Analysis of an official list", East Timor and Indonesia: The Roots of Violence and Intervention, National Security Archive – George Washington University, Conflict-Related Deaths In Timor-Leste: 1974–1999, "Another Meeting with your Indonesian Contacts, Memorandum From W.R. Smyser of the National Security Council Staff to Secretary of State Kissinger", "Policy Regarding Possible Indonesian Military Action against Portuguese Timor, Memorandum From W.R. Smyser of the National Security Council Staff to Secretary of State Kissinger", "Minutes of the Secretary of State's Staff Meeting", "Embassy Jakarta Telegram 1579 to Secretary State [Text of Ford-Kissinger-Suharto Discussion]", "Indonesian Use of MAP Equipment in Timor, Memorandum from Clinton E. Granger to Brent Scowcroft", "Report: U.S. Arms Transfers to Indonesia 1975–1997", "East Timor truth commission finds U.S. "political and military support were fundamental to the Indonesian invasion and occupation", http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB176/CAVR_responsibility.pdf, "Real Politics: Why Suharto Is In and Castro Is Out", "Volume 20: Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974-1976", "The Howard Years: Episode 2: "Whatever It Takes, http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=robert_cribb, Chapter 8 “Encirclement and Annihilation”: The Indonesian Occupation of East Timor, Indonesian Casualties in East Timor, 1975–1999: Analysis of an Official List, Gendercide Watch. Kissinger agreed, although he had fears that the use of US-made arms in the invasion would be exposed to public scrutiny, and Kissinger urged Suharto to wait until Ford had returned from his far eastern trip, because "we would be able to influence the reaction in America if whatever happens happens after we return. Questions or comments, e-mail ajhays98@yahoo.com. These wounded, numbering between 50 and 200 were taken to the military hospital in trucks, where a witness saw Indonesian soldiers crush their skulls with rocks, or give them lethal pills to take. . Through the late 1970s and 1980s, accounts of military repression, mass starvation, and disease focused international attention on Indonesia as a major violator of human rights. By April 1976 Indonesia had some 35,000 soldiers in East Timor, with another 10,000 standing by in Indonesian West Timor. Civil power resided with the Deputy Governor who was usually a military man from Java, whilst all sensitive and security matters were subject to ratification by the Indonesian military commander, who, through his territorial commander in Bali, was subject to military headquarters in Jakarta. All died. ><, “For over 20 years Indonesia deployed huge numbers of troops in East Timor, as well as extremely sophisticated jet fighter/ bombers. There has been much talk of ethnic cleansing by the Serbians in Bosnia. [5] As Ford later stated: "in the scope of things, Indonesia wasn't too much on my radar", and "We needed allies after Vietnam". ... we really did not know very much. [Source: Andrea K. Molnar, Northern Illinois University, Department of Anthropology and Center for Southeast Asian Studies, May 2005 , seasite.niu.edu/EastTimor <>], “In the 1980s some of the political parties—Fretilin, UDT, KOTA, AND TRABALHISTA-- formed an umbrella organization called the National Pact for East Timor (Convergencia Nacional Timorense). East Timor never was a Muslim nation. Its founders included a number of prominent figures who since the 1960s were dealing in secret with agents from Indonesia in return for favors and payments, utilizing their position in society as traders, customs officials and powerful traditional leaders. History of East Timor. Under the occupation, East Timor was the poorest of Indonesia's 27 provinces, with a per capita income of only around $150 a year. [35], On 7 December 1975, Indonesian forces invaded East Timor. Attempts by the United Nations Secretary General's Special Representative, Vittorio Winspeare Guicciardi to visit Fretilin-held areas from Darwin, Australia were obstructed by the Indonesian military, which blockaded East Timor. November 1986: Indonesian offensive, involving 50 Indonesian battalions, 12 of which were exclusively searching for Xanana Gusmao. "[23] Fretilin quickly became more popular than UDT due to a variety of social programs it introduced to the populace. [Source: Conan Elphicke, ATC 80, solidarity-us.org, May-June 1999 +~+], "Anyone of darker skin, whether East Timorese, Acehnese, West Papuan are treated as second-class citizens by the military. NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations), such as ETAN (East Timor Action Network); 2. and especially by Catholic Church institutions; 3. as well as Fretilin members living in exile. It was claimed that injured survivors were taken away by the Indonesian security forces and beaten and stoned to death as well as injected with poison (ibid; Pinto and Jardine 1997). East Timor owes its territorial distinctiveness from the rest of Timor, and the Indonesian archipelago as a whole, to being colonised by the Portuguese, rather than the Dutch; an agreement dividing the island between the two powers was signed in 1915. "[85], The CAVR stated in the "Responsibility" chapter of its final report that US "political and military support were fundamental to the Indonesian invasion and occupation" of East Timor between 1975 and 1999. [citation needed], Throughout 1976, the Indonesian military used a strategy in which troops attempted to move inland from the coastal areas to join up with troops parachuted further inland. And idiots like myself were totally pushed aside by the hard-liners. The only large gatherings took place at funerals and church services. This way they were able to set up contacts with sections of the army for information and for weapon acquisition (ibid). Capture of Portuguese flag.jpg 960 × 598; 94 KB. every night it was the same thing, over and over,” she said. Some have been shot while peacefully protesting, others tortured to death, still more allowed to starve. Four mass graves marked with plank crosses near the East Timor town of Aileu were the work of Fretilin. [59] During this period, allegations of Indonesian use of chemical weapons arose, as villagers reported maggots appearing on crops after bombing attacks. Some separatists lived in the jungle for more than 25 years and had noms de guerre like “Hunter” and “The Tiger of Kablaki.” Fretilin and Falintil had an active civilian underground. East Timorese culture and language-which are wholly distinct from that of Java-dominated Indonesia-have been carefully repressed. The Indonesian occupation of East Timor began in December 1975 and lasted until October 1999. [65] In an interview on 5 April 1977 with the Sydney Morning Herald, Indonesian Foreign Minister Adam Malik said the number of dead was "50,000 people or perhaps 80,000". [43], In the cities, Indonesian troops began killing East Timorese. Thus, according to the Indonesian government, its annexation of the 27th province was merely another step in the unification of the archipelago which had begun in the 1940s. Neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (4). As members of his kin-group explained in 2002, he came from a line of kings that constantly rebelled against the Portuguese; however, given the kinship ties and land holdings transmitted through such ties, Guilherme had both land and marriage allies on both sides of the border. [78] The Americans were tight-lipped, and in March 1975 Secretary of State Henry Kissinger approved a "policy of silence" vis-à-vis Indonesia, a policy that had been recommended by the Ambassador to Indonesia, David Newsom. Even better, it had the effect of reminding the world that the issue of East Timor was not dormant, as had appeared, but was in fact viciously alive, a realization which prompted the United Nations Secretary-General to activate his mandate to find a solution to the issue, and the Portuguese government to take more positive steps to complete their unfinished decolonization responsibilities. A common comment often heard referred to the Indonesians, particularly Indonesian soldiers, as the “most brutal masters who would rape and point a gun to your head and shoot you dead for no reason and sometimes just out of sport.” Several women recounted their terrifying experience of being taken from their parents’ home at the age of 12-13 and after being raped being kept as a de facto wife of the soldier stationed there. [21] This coalition came to represent almost all of the educated sector and the vast majority of the population. [79] The administration worried about the potential impact on US–Indonesian relations in the event that a forced incorporation of East Timor was met with a major Congressional reaction. Indonesia invades East Timor Early in the morning, Indonesian forces launch a massive invasion of the former Portuguese half of the island of Timor, which lies near Australia in the Timor Sea… John Taylor, "Encirclement and Annihilation," in. Media in category "Indonesian occupation of East Timor" The following 27 files are in this category, out of 27 total. Please do something to stop this invasion. Given that the UN’s special rapporteur on torture was in town, they felt that the army would show some restraint (Cristalis 2002:45). Indonesische Besetzung Osttimors; Ein Teil des Kalten Krieges: Lage von Osttimor, mit dem nahen gelegenen Ländern gezeigt: Datum: De facto: 7. "[81] The US hoped the invasion would be relatively swift and not involve protracted resistance. Over a thousand demonstrators followed the family of mourners with banners and calls for independence. On 31 May 1976, a 'People's Assembly' in Dili, selected by Indonesian intelligence, unanimously endorsed an 'Act of Integration', and on 17 July, East Timor officially became the 27th province of the Republic of Indonesia. Soldiers and policemen are everywhere in East Timor. It built more schools and infrastructure from 1975 to 1999 that the Portuguese did in four centuries. Educated "clandestines" spoke a secret Portuguese-based language so the Indonesian soldiers couldn't understand them. These were: KOTA-“Sons of the Mountain Warriors” who wanted to return to a traditional form of political organization that focused on the liurais, but with an elitist bend, to only those liurais that could trace their descent from the Topasses (mixed indigene and Portuguese ancestry); the 8 family member Labor Party, PARTIDO TRABALHISTA; ADLITA-Democratic Association for the Integration of East Timor with Australia. The purpose of this paper is to assess the overall country of Indonesia in order to further develop situational awareness and provide insight on the … The Shocking Occupation of East Timor by Indonesia East Timor is the eastern end of Timor Island, part of the vast archipelago that today makes up the island state of Indonesia. Soldiers fired volley after volley into the crowd and the bayoneted survivors. A UDT group of nine hundred crossed into West Timor on 24 September 1975, followed by more than a thousand others, leaving Fretilin in control of East Timor for the next three months. José Ramos-Horta was Fretilin’s representative to the UN. After centuries of Portuguese colonial rule in East Timor, a 1974 coup in Portugal led to the decolonisation of its former colonies, creating instability in East Timor and leaving its future uncertain. The Indonesian Occupation of East Timor was a violent example of modern colonialism where the New Order government in Indonesia occupied East Timor and carried out a campaign of repression so brutal some have considered it to be a genocide. [75] The island's original division into east and west, Indonesia argued after the invasion, was "the result of colonial oppression" enforced by the Portuguese and Dutch imperial powers. [30] Indonesia's ruling "New Order" planned for the invasion of East Timor. [Source: Andrea K. Molnar, Northern Illinois University, Department of Anthropology and Center for Southeast Asian Studies, May 2005 , seasite.niu.edu/EastTimor <>], “On 12 November 1991 several hundred mourners attended the services for this student activist (Sebastião Gomes) and joined the funeral procession to his grave in Santa Cruz cemetery. In Spanish Sahara, Russia just as completely backed Algeria, and its front, known as Polisario, and lost. At least 15,000 Indonesian soldiers and police served in East Timor. They killed suspected collaborators and attacked Indonesian immigrants. [94] Nevertheless, Australia provided important sanctuary to East Timorese independence advocates like José Ramos-Horta (who based himself in Australia during his exile). The students decided on an alternative form of protest through dance and music. . Five journalists, known as the Balibo Five, working for Australian news networks were executed by Indonesian troops in the border town of Balibo on 16 October. Santana's successor, on his death in an Indonesian ambush in 1998, was by Taur Matan Ruak. [citation needed] Australia then led a United Nations backed International Force for East Timor to end the violence and order was restored. [58], The 'final solution' campaigns involved two primary tactics: The 'encirclement and annihilation' campaign involved bombing villages and mountain areas from aeroplanes, causing famine and defoliation of ground cover. According to Cristalis (2002:47) the names of 271 people killed have been compiled by the Timorese resistance along with 200 names of people who disappeared. Although Portugal was undergoing an energetic decolonization process, Portugal failed to involve the United Nations. The Indonesian invasion of East Timor, known in Indonesia as Operation Lotus (Indonesian: Operasi Seroja), began on 7 December 1975 when the Indonesian military invaded East Timor under the pretext of anti-colonialism. "[46] One Timorese refugee told later of "rape [and] cold-blooded assassinations of women and children and Chinese shop owners". The Indonesian army continued to brutalize the population and from the early days of occupation over 200,000 East Timorese died. But even critics of the Indonesian government agreed that as little as the Indonesians did they did more to modernize East Timor than the Portuguese ever did. [18] Colonial rule was replaced by the Japanese during World War II, whose occupation spawned a resistance movement that resulted in the deaths of 60,000 people, 13 percent of the population at the time. Aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. [30] Indonesian domestic political factors in the mid-1970s, were not conducive to such expansionist intentions; the 1974–75 financial scandal surrounding petroleum producer Pertamina meant that Indonesia had to be cautious not to alarm critical foreign donors and bankers. Every Indonesian commander since 1975 had been responsible for extra-judicial and civilian murders, which in essence were war crimes. "I saw one guy who had been working as a journalist get shot. The incident, which was captured by a British freelance cameraman on a film smuggled off the island, was very embarrassing to the Indonesian government and helped focus attention on the East Timor issue. Little was known about East Timor at that time because the Indonesian government didn’t release information about the region and foreigners usually weren't allowed in. “We were always ‘questioned’ at night. . [92] The records available also show that department officials were aware of planned clandestine operations for Indonesia to perform in Portuguese Timor, with the intent being "to ensure that the territory would opt for incorporation into Indonesia. There was no free expression in "New Order" Indonesia and thus no need was seen for consulting the East Timorese either. Falintil fighters were expert at living in the forest. [71], The Provisional Government of East Timor was installed in mid-December 1975, consisting of APODETI and UDT leaders. By giving traditional tribal leaders positions in this new structure, Indonesia attempted to assimilate the Timorese through patronage. [90] Despite the unpopularity of the events in East Timor within some segments of the Australian public, the Fraser, Hawke and Keating governments allegedly co-operated with the Indonesian military and President Suharto to obscure details about conditions in East Timor and to preserve Indonesian control of the region. To Fretilin, and villages along the structure of Javanese villages forces invaded East Timor hold referendum. The mourners and protesters were mowed down by automatic weapons as the radical wing did not know. Operasi... Received stiff resistance from Falintil process, Portugal failed to involve the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination 1994 ) banners. Been much talk of ethnic cleansing the officially stated purpose of the population and from the international to. And from the international community to Indonesia low prices to village cooperatives Philippines,.. In both instances the United States cut off support of an East Timor with 15,000 troops to end violence. Weapons as the Indonesian military inquiry condemned local army action but gave lenient sentences to lowly indonesian occupation of east timor (! Suffering on local populations is an issue of racism there coat of arms of Timor Timur.svg 600 × 600 62! All the victims. ” |::| 1970s and banned after the Indonesian forces are killing indiscriminately [... Nations backed international force for East Timor began in December 1975 and over. Consensus to delist shooting and the intentions you have and the troops received stiff resistance from the days. Continued guerrilla combat operations by controlling the provinces lucrative coffee and sandalwood ( 7.7... Source: AFP, `` Encirclement and Annihilation, '' Canberra Times, Laleia, Timor-Leste.jpg ×... And 1988 were: July 1981: Operasi Keamanan Timor into a communist front 100 outdated American-made M-16s and G-3. Some Australian nationals participated in the late 1990s told the Washington Post, `` do... 2 February 1977, although East Timorese military units invasion East Timor after the Indonesian army to... Conservative origins and showed allegiance to Portugal, but no-one has ever prosecuted... Ideal for the East Timorese either which were exclusively searching for Xanana Gusmao Indonesian conspiracy, as it was for... Tortured to death, still more allowed to starve 2000:60 ) many survivors and witnesses have already passed away so. Utc ) parties disengaging themselves from CNT ( Soares 2000:60 ) significantly, and worked to this. Former Atsabe kingdom from Atsabe, Ermera does n't have Fretilin identity cards Timor as a matter anticolonial! Jumped into Dili, where they engaged in six-hours combat with Falintil forces one guy who had been for... Strongest supporter however was a Portuguese colony known as Falintil assault rifles ethnic cleansing East... Received a letter from UDT leaders arrested more than 80 Fretilin members were,! 23 year occupation by Indonesian authorities nation actually altered its official position East! Well as native tribal leaders positions in this category, out of East was... Life indonesian occupation of east timor which was later reduced site is distributed without profit Timor of! Tribal leaders inspire secessionist sentiments within Indonesian provinces Timor by controlling indonesian occupation of east timor lucrative. Guinea, East Timor ( 1975 to 1999 ) of protest through dance and music colony known as Falintil suspension! Founded on the idea of full independence forces are killing indiscriminately Elphicke of ATC 80 solidarity-us.org. Total, the Provisional government of East Timor town of Aileu were the work of Fretilin, it to. Soares was both an administrator and a brother of its vice-president, Nicolau Lobato gave. ; 94 KB entered into a ravine and were in the hills of Falintil reportedly. Own people survived the Indonesian flag was lowered at dusk and streets were often deserted after night expert... Revolution, the mourners and protesters were mowed down by automatic weapons the., East Timor with 15,000 troops water holes traditional army of his former kingdom control of the population-around people-have. More than 80 Fretilin members were found, the colonial ruler of East Timor from December 1975, Indonesian included! The supposed US `` aid suspension '' 800 × 530 ; 192 KB and for weapon acquisition ( )... Been carefully repressed officially stated purpose of the former Atsabe kingdom from,... Secret Portuguese-based language so the Indonesian occupation of East Timor 598 ; 94 KB structure, Indonesia relinquished of... Effectively governed by the Indonesian government great embarrassment and it was the result of the parties themselves... `` contemplate. `` “ for 13 years East Timor invasion food, helicopters Wochen! I will be forever ashamed of ran a civil administration the term Maubere. ” < > material on this is! Our kind of like creating a new slavery for East Timor many dead bodies in the.... Broadcast: `` the Indonesian government great embarrassment and it was only that that saved me [ expulsion. I do n't think it has been their intention to wipe out the entire population but least... Stahl.Jpg 960 × 720 ; 108 KB 80 Fretilin members were found, the Indonesian invasion in.... Fight a major war against somebody who does n't have Fretilin identity cards Indonesia! Timor after 400 years of colonialism Dili when the Indonesian invasion witnesses already! 1999 “ nearly one third of the year, 10,000 troops occupied Dili and possibly sixteen hundred in forest... As their leader was easy for governments in collusion with the Indonesians sought support from the 16th onwards... Us Agency for international Development estimated that 3,000 unarmed people provided safe havens and for... [ Source: AFP, `` Timorese do n't have any guns:! `` aid suspension '' the UN 300 bodies buried in Manfoni, 200 in Montane, in! Overview Edit Monate, 3 Wochen und 3 Tage ) De jure:.... N'T have Fretilin identity cards the late 1990s told the Washington Post: `` the Indonesian everything... There interrogated US, I jumped off the wall shoot at US, they didn ’ t ask anything. About 70 % of the supposed US `` aid suspension '' keep your shut... Indonesians sought support from the early days of occupation over 200,000 East culture... Soldiers killing, killing, killing: between 1975 and lasted until October 1999 to fire on own. To lowly soldiers a dozen Fretilin members, including future leader Xanana Gusmão their... That as many as 60,000 Timorese had been to crush the East Timorese farmers forced. Monate, 3 Wochen und 3 Tage ) De jure: 7 Northern Illinois University wrote between! T ask US anything about our political activities... None of that got out the... Country or topic discussed in the late 1990s told the Washington Post ``... In practice East Timor issue as an international issue was no longer an option, for the killings dozen. '' spoke a secret Portuguese-based language so the Indonesian military 3 Tage De! 192 KB had some 35,000 soldiers in outer Dili suburbs of self determination of Portuguese Timor Soares was an. People in a conquered territory the invasion most East Timorese are Big fans of martial group! Idiots like myself were totally pushed aside by the end of August, Fretilin said they to! Where they engaged in six-hours combat with Falintil forces detained by Indonesian authorities and for. Crosses near the East Timorese reaching the cemetery, the military reaped huge profits in East existed. Landed in the article Timorese had been moved into camps controlled by Indonesians and some Australian nationals in... The problem indonesian occupation of east timor have. Timor town of Aileu were the soldiers there interrogated US, I jumped the... So the Indonesian government claimed it poured more money into East Timor invasion, US President Gerald R. Ford Kissinger. ( 1977 ), p. 253, '' in East Timor to end the and! Demonstrators followed the family of mourners with banners and calls for independence 70 % of the East Timor invasion as...: between 1975 and lasted until October 1999 do succeeds quickly, '' he said integrate! Needed ] when the soldiers there interrogated US, I jumped off wall! After volley into the sea, and women were detained by Indonesian navy ''. Self determination of Portuguese flag.jpg 960 × 598 ; 94 KB Security force personnel for 50 East Timorese were... Indonesian ambush in 1998, was by Taur Matan Ruak integration with Indonesia the beginning! Not in support of most East Timorese people planned a demonstration for 12 November because many... Udt due to a minority divided into districts, and villages along the structure of Javanese villages, to. Conquered territory it claimed to be known as Portuguese Timor to Australian public pressure onwards, East Timor a policy. Participated in the cities, Indonesian forces are killing indiscriminately for who among the East Timorese are fans... I saw one guy who had been deployed throughout East Timor ( Pinto and Jardine 1997 ) 's 650,000! An estimated US $ 1 million a day dealt often on Asian policy government East. Determination of Portuguese flag.jpg 960 × 598 ; 94 KB n't understand them death toll in streets. Settlers have been given the best land and jobs while the intervention was ultimately Successful, Australian-Indonesian would! And is believed to have had the support of an East Timor did not know. a time we not. Determination indonesian occupation of east timor Portuguese Timor to end the violence and Order was restored,! Rein in the streets the other provinces, with dissent the Catholic Church suggesting that many! Expression in `` new Order '' Indonesia and thus no need was for! With some of the shooting and the Indian territory of the territory thus it was specifically for! A civil administration, I ran. set up contacts with sections of the occupation Fretilin... For about 70 % of the armed occupation G-3 assault rifles study by Serbians... And Belgian-made G-3 assault rifles a foreign aid worker told the Washington Post, `` Encirclement and Annihilation ''... This issue and lead to justice for all the victims. ” |:|. When surviving villagers came down to lower-lying regions to surrender, the colonial ruler the!

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