However, factionalism continued and the resistance remained divided with some of the parties disengaging themselves from CNT (Soares 2000:60). , Though the Indonesian military advanced into East Timor, most of the populations left the invaded towns and villages in coastal areas for the mountainous interior. UDT members killed a dozen Fretilin members in four locations. The Fretilin armed wing, called Falintil, was made up of rough men with wild hair and mismatched uniforms and armed with old Portuguese weapons, outdated M-14s, spears, bows and arrows, machetes and knives.  While the US government claimed to have suspended new arms sales to Indonesia from December 1975 to June 1976, military equipment already in the pipeline continued to flow, and the US made four new offers of arms during that six-month period, including supplies and parts for 16 OV-10 Broncos, which, according to Cornell University Professor Benedict Anderson, are "specially designed for counter-insurgency actions against adversaries without effective anti-aircraft weapons and wholly useless for defending Indonesia against a foreign enemy." , The 1975–1978 period, from the beginning of the invasion to the largely successful conclusion of the encirclement and annihilation campaign, proved to be the toughest period of the entire conflict, costing the Indonesians more than 1,000 fatalities out of the total of 2,000 who died during the entire occupation. The proclaimed attempt to win the hearts and minds of the East Timorese had not only met with no success, but had earned the Indonesians the bitter and undying hatred of the East Timorese, even among the youth who were born well after the invasion. These ideological and material programs were strategies to quell Coat of arms of Timor Timur.svg 600 × 600; 62 KB. But as the days and weeks evolved there was tremendous pressure from the Timorese university students in Portugal, who were all Maoist.. By September 1974 we changed into Fretilin-Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor .  The last two decades of the century saw continuous clashes between Indonesian and East Timorese groups over the status of East Timor, until 1999, when a majority of East Timorese voted overwhelmingly for independence (the alternative option being "special autonomy" while remaining part of Indonesia). You name it; they got it. In October 1996 the continued diplomatic efforts to attract international attention to atrocities in East Timor are recognized by the Nobel Peace Prize which was awarded to José Ramos-Horta and Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo. 8 “Encirclement and Annihilation”: The Indonesian Occupation of East Timor, "Indonesian casualties in East Timor, 1975–1999: Analysis of an official list", East Timor and Indonesia: The Roots of Violence and Intervention, National Security Archive – George Washington University, Conflict-Related Deaths In Timor-Leste: 1974–1999, "Another Meeting with your Indonesian Contacts, Memorandum From W.R. Smyser of the National Security Council Staff to Secretary of State Kissinger", "Policy Regarding Possible Indonesian Military Action against Portuguese Timor, Memorandum From W.R. Smyser of the National Security Council Staff to Secretary of State Kissinger", "Minutes of the Secretary of State's Staff Meeting", "Embassy Jakarta Telegram 1579 to Secretary State [Text of Ford-Kissinger-Suharto Discussion]", "Indonesian Use of MAP Equipment in Timor, Memorandum from Clinton E. Granger to Brent Scowcroft", "Report: U.S. Arms Transfers to Indonesia 1975–1997", "East Timor truth commission finds U.S. "political and military support were fundamental to the Indonesian invasion and occupation", http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB176/CAVR_responsibility.pdf, "Real Politics: Why Suharto Is In and Castro Is Out", "Volume 20: Australia and the Indonesian Incorporation of Portuguese Timor, 1974-1976", "The Howard Years: Episode 2: "Whatever It Takes, http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=robert_cribb, Chapter 8 “Encirclement and Annihilation”: The Indonesian Occupation of East Timor, Indonesian Casualties in East Timor, 1975–1999: Analysis of an Official List, Gendercide Watch. Kissinger agreed, although he had fears that the use of US-made arms in the invasion would be exposed to public scrutiny, and Kissinger urged Suharto to wait until Ford had returned from his far eastern trip, because "we would be able to influence the reaction in America if whatever happens happens after we return. Questions or comments, e-mail email@example.com. These wounded, numbering between 50 and 200 were taken to the military hospital in trucks, where a witness saw Indonesian soldiers crush their skulls with rocks, or give them lethal pills to take. . Through the late 1970s and 1980s, accounts of military repression, mass starvation, and disease focused international attention on Indonesia as a major violator of human rights. By April 1976 Indonesia had some 35,000 soldiers in East Timor, with another 10,000 standing by in Indonesian West Timor. Civil power resided with the Deputy Governor who was usually a military man from Java, whilst all sensitive and security matters were subject to ratification by the Indonesian military commander, who, through his territorial commander in Bali, was subject to military headquarters in Jakarta. All died. ><, “For over 20 years Indonesia deployed huge numbers of troops in East Timor, as well as extremely sophisticated jet fighter/ bombers. There has been much talk of ethnic cleansing by the Serbians in Bosnia.  As Ford later stated: "in the scope of things, Indonesia wasn't too much on my radar", and "We needed allies after Vietnam". ... we really did not know very much. [Source: Andrea K. Molnar, Northern Illinois University, Department of Anthropology and Center for Southeast Asian Studies, May 2005 , seasite.niu.edu/EastTimor <>], “In the 1980s some of the political parties—Fretilin, UDT, KOTA, AND TRABALHISTA-- formed an umbrella organization called the National Pact for East Timor (Convergencia Nacional Timorense). East Timor never was a Muslim nation. Its founders included a number of prominent figures who since the 1960s were dealing in secret with agents from Indonesia in return for favors and payments, utilizing their position in society as traders, customs officials and powerful traditional leaders. History of East Timor. Under the occupation, East Timor was the poorest of Indonesia's 27 provinces, with a per capita income of only around $150 a year. , On 7 December 1975, Indonesian forces invaded East Timor. Attempts by the United Nations Secretary General's Special Representative, Vittorio Winspeare Guicciardi to visit Fretilin-held areas from Darwin, Australia were obstructed by the Indonesian military, which blockaded East Timor. November 1986: Indonesian offensive, involving 50 Indonesian battalions, 12 of which were exclusively searching for Xanana Gusmao. " Fretilin quickly became more popular than UDT due to a variety of social programs it introduced to the populace. [Source: Conan Elphicke, ATC 80, solidarity-us.org, May-June 1999 +~+], "Anyone of darker skin, whether East Timorese, Acehnese, West Papuan are treated as second-class citizens by the military. NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations), such as ETAN (East Timor Action Network); 2. and especially by Catholic Church institutions; 3. as well as Fretilin members living in exile. It was claimed that injured survivors were taken away by the Indonesian security forces and beaten and stoned to death as well as injected with poison (ibid; Pinto and Jardine 1997). East Timor owes its territorial distinctiveness from the rest of Timor, and the Indonesian archipelago as a whole, to being colonised by the Portuguese, rather than the Dutch; an agreement dividing the island between the two powers was signed in 1915. ", The CAVR stated in the "Responsibility" chapter of its final report that US "political and military support were fundamental to the Indonesian invasion and occupation" of East Timor between 1975 and 1999. , Throughout 1976, the Indonesian military used a strategy in which troops attempted to move inland from the coastal areas to join up with troops parachuted further inland. And idiots like myself were totally pushed aside by the hard-liners. The only large gatherings took place at funerals and church services. This way they were able to set up contacts with sections of the army for information and for weapon acquisition (ibid). Capture of Portuguese flag.jpg 960 × 598; 94 KB. every night it was the same thing, over and over,” she said. Some have been shot while peacefully protesting, others tortured to death, still more allowed to starve. Four mass graves marked with plank crosses near the East Timor town of Aileu were the work of Fretilin.  During this period, allegations of Indonesian use of chemical weapons arose, as villagers reported maggots appearing on crops after bombing attacks. Some separatists lived in the jungle for more than 25 years and had noms de guerre like “Hunter” and “The Tiger of Kablaki.” Fretilin and Falintil had an active civilian underground. East Timorese culture and language-which are wholly distinct from that of Java-dominated Indonesia-have been carefully repressed. The Indonesian occupation of East Timor began in December 1975 and lasted until October 1999.  In an interview on 5 April 1977 with the Sydney Morning Herald, Indonesian Foreign Minister Adam Malik said the number of dead was "50,000 people or perhaps 80,000". , In the cities, Indonesian troops began killing East Timorese. Thus, according to the Indonesian government, its annexation of the 27th province was merely another step in the unification of the archipelago which had begun in the 1940s. Neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (4). As members of his kin-group explained in 2002, he came from a line of kings that constantly rebelled against the Portuguese; however, given the kinship ties and land holdings transmitted through such ties, Guilherme had both land and marriage allies on both sides of the border.  The Americans were tight-lipped, and in March 1975 Secretary of State Henry Kissinger approved a "policy of silence" vis-à-vis Indonesia, a policy that had been recommended by the Ambassador to Indonesia, David Newsom. Even better, it had the effect of reminding the world that the issue of East Timor was not dormant, as had appeared, but was in fact viciously alive, a realization which prompted the United Nations Secretary-General to activate his mandate to find a solution to the issue, and the Portuguese government to take more positive steps to complete their unfinished decolonization responsibilities. A common comment often heard referred to the Indonesians, particularly Indonesian soldiers, as the “most brutal masters who would rape and point a gun to your head and shoot you dead for no reason and sometimes just out of sport.” Several women recounted their terrifying experience of being taken from their parents’ home at the age of 12-13 and after being raped being kept as a de facto wife of the soldier stationed there.  This coalition came to represent almost all of the educated sector and the vast majority of the population.  The administration worried about the potential impact on US–Indonesian relations in the event that a forced incorporation of East Timor was met with a major Congressional reaction. Indonesia invades East Timor Early in the morning, Indonesian forces launch a massive invasion of the former Portuguese half of the island of Timor, which lies near Australia in the Timor Sea… John Taylor, "Encirclement and Annihilation," in. Media in category "Indonesian occupation of East Timor" The following 27 files are in this category, out of 27 total. Please do something to stop this invasion. Given that the UN’s special rapporteur on torture was in town, they felt that the army would show some restraint (Cristalis 2002:45). Indonesische Besetzung Osttimors; Ein Teil des Kalten Krieges: Lage von Osttimor, mit dem nahen gelegenen Ländern gezeigt: Datum: De facto: 7. " The US hoped the invasion would be relatively swift and not involve protracted resistance. Over a thousand demonstrators followed the family of mourners with banners and calls for independence. On 31 May 1976, a 'People's Assembly' in Dili, selected by Indonesian intelligence, unanimously endorsed an 'Act of Integration', and on 17 July, East Timor officially became the 27th province of the Republic of Indonesia. Soldiers and policemen are everywhere in East Timor. It built more schools and infrastructure from 1975 to 1999 that the Portuguese did in four centuries. Educated "clandestines" spoke a secret Portuguese-based language so the Indonesian soldiers couldn't understand them. These were: KOTA-“Sons of the Mountain Warriors” who wanted to return to a traditional form of political organization that focused on the liurais, but with an elitist bend, to only those liurais that could trace their descent from the Topasses (mixed indigene and Portuguese ancestry); the 8 family member Labor Party, PARTIDO TRABALHISTA; ADLITA-Democratic Association for the Integration of East Timor with Australia. The purpose of this paper is to assess the overall country of Indonesia in order to further develop situational awareness and provide insight on the … The Shocking Occupation of East Timor by Indonesia East Timor is the eastern end of Timor Island, part of the vast archipelago that today makes up the island state of Indonesia. Soldiers fired volley after volley into the crowd and the bayoneted survivors. A UDT group of nine hundred crossed into West Timor on 24 September 1975, followed by more than a thousand others, leaving Fretilin in control of East Timor for the next three months. José Ramos-Horta was Fretilin’s representative to the UN. After centuries of Portuguese colonial rule in East Timor, a 1974 coup in Portugal led to the decolonisation of its former colonies, creating instability in East Timor and leaving its future uncertain. The Indonesian Occupation of East Timor was a violent example of modern colonialism where the New Order government in Indonesia occupied East Timor and carried out a campaign of repression so brutal some have considered it to be a genocide.  The island's original division into east and west, Indonesia argued after the invasion, was "the result of colonial oppression" enforced by the Portuguese and Dutch imperial powers.  Indonesia's ruling "New Order" planned for the invasion of East Timor. [Source: Andrea K. Molnar, Northern Illinois University, Department of Anthropology and Center for Southeast Asian Studies, May 2005 , seasite.niu.edu/EastTimor <>], “On 12 November 1991 several hundred mourners attended the services for this student activist (Sebastião Gomes) and joined the funeral procession to his grave in Santa Cruz cemetery. In Spanish Sahara, Russia just as completely backed Algeria, and its front, known as Polisario, and lost. At least 15,000 Indonesian soldiers and police served in East Timor. They killed suspected collaborators and attacked Indonesian immigrants.  Nevertheless, Australia provided important sanctuary to East Timorese independence advocates like José Ramos-Horta (who based himself in Australia during his exile). The students decided on an alternative form of protest through dance and music. . Five journalists, known as the Balibo Five, working for Australian news networks were executed by Indonesian troops in the border town of Balibo on 16 October. Santana's successor, on his death in an Indonesian ambush in 1998, was by Taur Matan Ruak.  Australia then led a United Nations backed International Force for East Timor to end the violence and order was restored. , The 'final solution' campaigns involved two primary tactics: The 'encirclement and annihilation' campaign involved bombing villages and mountain areas from aeroplanes, causing famine and defoliation of ground cover. According to Cristalis (2002:47) the names of 271 people killed have been compiled by the Timorese resistance along with 200 names of people who disappeared. Although Portugal was undergoing an energetic decolonization process, Portugal failed to involve the United Nations. The Indonesian invasion of East Timor, known in Indonesia as Operation Lotus (Indonesian: Operasi Seroja), began on 7 December 1975 when the Indonesian military invaded East Timor under the pretext of anti-colonialism. " One Timorese refugee told later of "rape [and] cold-blooded assassinations of women and children and Chinese shop owners". The Indonesian army continued to brutalize the population and from the early days of occupation over 200,000 East Timorese died. But even critics of the Indonesian government agreed that as little as the Indonesians did they did more to modernize East Timor than the Portuguese ever did.  Colonial rule was replaced by the Japanese during World War II, whose occupation spawned a resistance movement that resulted in the deaths of 60,000 people, 13 percent of the population at the time. Aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie.  Indonesian domestic political factors in the mid-1970s, were not conducive to such expansionist intentions; the 1974–75 financial scandal surrounding petroleum producer Pertamina meant that Indonesia had to be cautious not to alarm critical foreign donors and bankers. Every Indonesian commander since 1975 had been responsible for extra-judicial and civilian murders, which in essence were war crimes. "I saw one guy who had been working as a journalist get shot. The incident, which was captured by a British freelance cameraman on a film smuggled off the island, was very embarrassing to the Indonesian government and helped focus attention on the East Timor issue. Little was known about East Timor at that time because the Indonesian government didn’t release information about the region and foreigners usually weren't allowed in. “We were always ‘questioned’ at night. .  The records available also show that department officials were aware of planned clandestine operations for Indonesia to perform in Portuguese Timor, with the intent being "to ensure that the territory would opt for incorporation into Indonesia. There was no free expression in "New Order" Indonesia and thus no need was seen for consulting the East Timorese either. Falintil fighters were expert at living in the forest. , The Provisional Government of East Timor was installed in mid-December 1975, consisting of APODETI and UDT leaders. By giving traditional tribal leaders positions in this new structure, Indonesia attempted to assimilate the Timorese through patronage.  Despite the unpopularity of the events in East Timor within some segments of the Australian public, the Fraser, Hawke and Keating governments allegedly co-operated with the Indonesian military and President Suharto to obscure details about conditions in East Timor and to preserve Indonesian control of the region. 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